Preprint: Please note that this article has not completed peer review.
Research article

Association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and thyroid dysfunction: a case-control seroprevalence study

Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Agar Ramos-Nevarez, Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola, Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Verónica Dayali Gutierrez-Martinez, Antonio Sifuentes-Alvarez, Eda Guadalupe Ramírez-Valles, Edith Contreras-Cisneros

Abstract

Background: The association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and thyroid disease has been poorly studied. Therefore, we sought to determine the association between T. gondii seropositivity and thyroid dysfunction.    Methods: We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 176 patients suffering from hypothyroidism (n=161) or hyperthyroidism (n=15) and 528 control subjects without these diseases in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were determined in sera from cases and controls using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results: Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 11 (6.3%) of 176 patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction and in 48 (9.1%) of 528 control subjects (OR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.33-1.31; P=0.23). Stratification by two groups of age (50 years and younger, and 51 year and older) showed that the youngest group of patients with thyroid dysfunction had a significantly lower seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than its age- and gender-matched control group (1/83: 1.2% vs 23/257: 8.6%; OR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.01-0.93; P=0.01). This stratification also showed that the youngest group of patients with hypothyroidism had a significantly lower seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than its age- and gender matched control group (0/75: 0% vs 21/233: 9.0%; P=0.003). Conclusions: Our results suggest that thyroid dysfunction is not associated with seropositivity to T. gondii in general; however, in young (50 years or less) patients, a negative association between infection and thyroid dysfunction and hypothyroidism was found. Further research to confirm this negative association is needed.

Keywords
Toxoplasma gondii; infection; seroprevalence; hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, epidemiology; case-control study; Mexico.

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Declarations

References

Tables

Supplementary Files

STATUS: In Review

Comments: 0
PDF Downloads: 0
HTML Views: 4

Integrity Check:

Peer Review Timeline

Version 2

Posted 14 Aug, 2019

  • No community comments so far
  • Review #1 received

    Received 10 Aug, 2019

  • Reviewer #2 agreed

    On 06 Aug, 2019

  • Reviewer #1 agreed

    On 05 Aug, 2019

  • Editor assigned

    On 02 Aug, 2019

  • 4 reviewer(s) invited

    Invitations sent on 02 Aug, 2019

  • Submission checks complete

    On 01 Aug, 2019

  • Editor invited

    On 01 Aug, 2019

Version 1

Posted 03 Jun, 2019

View this version

Subject Areas

Infectious Diseases

More from BMC Infectious Diseases

Comments (0)

Comments can take the form of short reviews, notes or questions to the author. Comments will be posted immediately, but removed and moderated if flagged.

Learn more about our company.

Preprint: Please note that this article has not completed peer review.
Research article

Association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and thyroid dysfunction: a case-control seroprevalence study

Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Agar Ramos-Nevarez, Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola, Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Verónica Dayali Gutierrez-Martinez, Antonio Sifuentes-Alvarez, Eda Guadalupe Ramírez-Valles, Edith Contreras-Cisneros

STATUS: In Review

Comments: 0
PDF Downloads: 0
HTML Views: 4

Integrity Check:

  • Article

  • Peer Review Timeline

  • Related Articles

  • Comments

Abstract

Background: The association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and thyroid disease has been poorly studied. Therefore, we sought to determine the association between T. gondii seropositivity and thyroid dysfunction.    Methods: We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 176 patients suffering from hypothyroidism (n=161) or hyperthyroidism (n=15) and 528 control subjects without these diseases in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were determined in sera from cases and controls using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results: Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 11 (6.3%) of 176 patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction and in 48 (9.1%) of 528 control subjects (OR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.33-1.31; P=0.23). Stratification by two groups of age (50 years and younger, and 51 year and older) showed that the youngest group of patients with thyroid dysfunction had a significantly lower seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than its age- and gender-matched control group (1/83: 1.2% vs 23/257: 8.6%; OR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.01-0.93; P=0.01). This stratification also showed that the youngest group of patients with hypothyroidism had a significantly lower seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than its age- and gender matched control group (0/75: 0% vs 21/233: 9.0%; P=0.003). Conclusions: Our results suggest that thyroid dysfunction is not associated with seropositivity to T. gondii in general; however, in young (50 years or less) patients, a negative association between infection and thyroid dysfunction and hypothyroidism was found. Further research to confirm this negative association is needed.

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Declarations

References

Tables

Learn more about our company.