1.World Health Organization Global tuberculosis report, Geneva. 2018: World Health Organization.
2.World Health Organization drug-resistant tuberculosis now at record levels. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010.
3.Loddenkemper, R., D. Sagebiel, and A. Brendel, Strategies against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. European respiratory journal, 2002. 20(36 suppl): p. 66s–77s.
4.World Health Organization Global tuberculosis control: WHO report 2010. 2010, Geneva: World Health Organization.
5.Abebe, G., et al., Relatively low primary drug resistant tuberculosis in southwestern Ethiopia. BMC research notes, 2012. 5(1): p. 225.
6.World Health Organization global tuberculosis control. 2010: World Health Organization.
7.Wright, A. and M. Zignol, Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world: fourth global report: the world health organization/international union against tuberculosis and lung disease (who/union) global project on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance, 2002–2007. 2008: World Health Organization.
8.World Health Organization Global tuberculosis report 2016.
9.Migliori, G. B., et al., Review of multidrug‐resistant and extensively drug‐resistant TB: global perspectives with a focus on sub‐Saharan Africa. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2010. 15(9): p. 1052–1066.
10.Amor, Y. B., et al., Underreported threat of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Africa. Emerging infectious diseases, 2008. 14(9): p. 1345.
11.World Health Organization Global tuberculosis report,Geneva. 2017.
12.World Health Organization., Global tuberculosis report 2018. 2018.
13.Goble, M., et al., Treatment of 171 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. New England journal of medicine, 1993. 328(8): p. 527–532.
14.Sharma, S. and A. Mohan, Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 2004. 120: p. 354–376.
15.MOH, Guidelines for clinical and programmatic management of TB, leprosy and TB/HIV in Ethiopia. 2012, Ministry of Health Addis Ababa.
16.Organization, W. H., The global MDR-TB & XDR-TB response plan 2007–2008. 2007.
17.World Health Organization., Drug-resistant tuberculosis now at record levels. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010.
18.Espinal, M. A., et al., Standard short-course chemotherapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: treatment outcomes in 6 countries. Jama, 2000. 283(19): p. 2537–2545.
19.Chen, S., et al., Risk factors for multidrug resistance among previously treated patients with tuberculosis in eastern China: a case–control study. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2013. 17(12): p. e1116-e1120.
20.World Health Organization Global tuberculosis report 2013: World Health Organization.
21.Seyoum, B., et al., Prevalence and drug resistance patterns of mycobacterium tuberculosis among new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in eastern Ethiopia. Tuberculosis research and treatment, 2014. 2014.
22.world Health Organization(WHO), Global tuberculosis report. 2018.
23.FMOH national programmatic management of drug resistant TB in Ethiopia. 2017.
24.FMOH, Fedreral Minisrty of Health of Ethiopia. Guide Line for Program and Clinical Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis. 1st ed. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: FMOH. 2009.
25.Federal ministry of Ethiopia, Guide lines on programatic management of drug resistance tuberculosis, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2013.
26.Gobena, D., et al., Predictor of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in southwestern part of Ethiopia: a case control study. Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 2018. 17(1): p. 30.
27.Hirpa, S., et al., Determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in patients who underwent first-line treatment in Addis Ababa: a case control study. BMC Public Health, 2013. 13(1): p. 782.
28.Fanta Desissa, T. W.a.T. B., Risk factors for the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients undergoing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in East Shoa,Ethiopia. 2018.
29.Commission, F. D. R.o.E. P. C., Summary and Statistical report of the 2007 population and housing census. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2008.
30.Desissa, F., T. Workineh, and T. Beyene, Risk factors for the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients undergoing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in East Shoa, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 2018. 18(1): p. 422.
31.Mulisa, G., et al., Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated risk factors in Oromia Region of Ethiopia. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2015. 39: p. 57–61.
32.Mulu, W., et al., Risk factors for multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Amhara National Regional State. African health sciences, 2015. 15(2): p. 368–377.
33.Andrews, J. R., et al., Predictors of multidrug-and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence community. PloS one, 2010. 5(12): p. e15735.
34.Tadesse, F., Risk factors for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Universal Journal of Public Health, 2015. 3(2): p. 65–70.
35.Chuchottaworn, C., et al., Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis at the Central Chest Institute of Thailand. PLoS One, 2015. 10(10): p. e0139986.
36.Fregona, G., et al., Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. Revista de saude publica, 2017. 51: p. 41.
37.Espinal, M., et al., Determinants of drug-resistant tuberculosis: analysis of 11 countries. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2001. 5(10): p. 887–893.
38.Asgedom, S. W., M. Teweldemedhin, and H. Gebreyesus, Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Associated Factors in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review. Journal of pathogens, 2018. 2018.
39.Rifat, M., et al., Factors related to previous tuberculosis treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh. BMJ open, 2015. 5(9): p. e008273.
40.Abdella, K., et al., Drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and associated factors among retreatment cases around Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 2015. 15(1): p. 599.
41.Ricks, P.M., et al., Characteristics of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Namibia. BMC infectious diseases, 2012. 12(1): p. 385.