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Association between Smoking and Academic Performance among Under-Graduate Students of Pakistan, A Cross-Sectional Study

Sana Ullah, Siham Sikander, Mudassar Mushtaq Jawad Abbasi, Syed Aftab Rahim, Babar Hayat, Zaeem Ul Haq, Iftikhar Ahmad
DOI: 10.21203/rs.2.12718/v1

Abstract

Background

Prevalence of smoking is on the rise and its harmful effects on every organ of body are well known. Smoking is a growing concern due to adverse effects on health, its association with academic performance is not well studied.

Objectives

This study aims to assess the prevalence of smoking among undergraduate students of age 18-24 years in a public sector university of Islamabad, association between smoking and academic performance and also to assess the reasons of smoking initiation among undergraduate students.

Methods

The study included 500 undergraduate students. A self-report structured questionnaire was used to assess smoking, dietary habits, physical activity, parent’s smoking, friend’s smoking, time spent on mobile and TV and academic performance for collection of data. Logistic regression was used for association between smoking and academic performance.

Results

Results of study show that 112/500 (22.4%) students were smokers among them 93/112 (34.6%) were males and 19/112 (8.2%) were females. The mean age of study participants was 21.50 years (SD: 1.72. Prevalence of smoking was higher in students belonging to rural areas 23.5% to that of urban areas 21.9%. Three major reasons of smoking initiation; 25% students stated peers and friends, 21% stated easy availability while 14% said it was fun and enjoyment they started smoking. High academic performance was found to be inversely proportional to student’s smoking; at p-value 0.000 smokers had 2.5 (1.77, 3.74) odds of lower academic performance, boys having 2.17 (1.56, 3.03) odds of lower academic performance in last semester exams.

Conclusion

Findings highlighted extensive cigarette smoking among undergraduate students of Islamabad. Smoking is significantly and negatively associated with academic performance.

Keywords
GPA, Smoking, Undergraduate, Students, Youth, Academic performance.

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Preprint: Please note that this article has not completed peer review.

Association between Smoking and Academic Performance among Under-Graduate Students of Pakistan, A Cross-Sectional Study

Sana Ullah, Siham Sikander, Mudassar Mushtaq Jawad Abbasi, Syed Aftab Rahim, Babar Hayat, Zaeem Ul Haq, Iftikhar Ahmad

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Abstract

Background

Prevalence of smoking is on the rise and its harmful effects on every organ of body are well known. Smoking is a growing concern due to adverse effects on health, its association with academic performance is not well studied.

Objectives

This study aims to assess the prevalence of smoking among undergraduate students of age 18-24 years in a public sector university of Islamabad, association between smoking and academic performance and also to assess the reasons of smoking initiation among undergraduate students.

Methods

The study included 500 undergraduate students. A self-report structured questionnaire was used to assess smoking, dietary habits, physical activity, parent’s smoking, friend’s smoking, time spent on mobile and TV and academic performance for collection of data. Logistic regression was used for association between smoking and academic performance.

Results

Results of study show that 112/500 (22.4%) students were smokers among them 93/112 (34.6%) were males and 19/112 (8.2%) were females. The mean age of study participants was 21.50 years (SD: 1.72. Prevalence of smoking was higher in students belonging to rural areas 23.5% to that of urban areas 21.9%. Three major reasons of smoking initiation; 25% students stated peers and friends, 21% stated easy availability while 14% said it was fun and enjoyment they started smoking. High academic performance was found to be inversely proportional to student’s smoking; at p-value 0.000 smokers had 2.5 (1.77, 3.74) odds of lower academic performance, boys having 2.17 (1.56, 3.03) odds of lower academic performance in last semester exams.

Conclusion

Findings highlighted extensive cigarette smoking among undergraduate students of Islamabad. Smoking is significantly and negatively associated with academic performance.

Figures

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Declarations

References

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