Obstetrics fistula is a complication that arises from prolonged or obstructed labor without prompt medical care which causes tissue necrosis resulting in a hole between the vagina and bladder or rectum, or both.
It is a public health issue for women and their communities within developing settings, particularly in Africa and Southeast Asia. Of which signifies a health system that has failed to provide accessible, timely and appropriate intrapartum care [2, 3].
Globally, around two million, women living with untreated fistulas and yearly there are between 50,000 to 100,000 new cases of OBF develop worldwide. Of these around 33,000 women live in Sub-Saharan Africa and it affects about 1.57 per 1,000 women in Sub-Saharan Africa and 1.62 women per 1000 reproductive age in Ethiopia.
In prolonged obstructed labor vaginal, bladder, and rectal damage results from compression of the maternal tissue by the fetus during repeated uterine contractions that restrict blood flow, resulting in ischemia and tissue and which results in continuous and uncontrolled leakage of urine.
OBF primarily affects lower socioeconomic classes, who are underprivileged, un/or underemployed, and have limited access to safe delivery attended by qualified health personnel.
The underlying factors contributing to obstetrics fistula (OBF) include no skilled birth attendants, poor health seeking behavior, poor referral systems and transportation network, inadequate facilities providing comprehensive obstetric care services, poverty, malnutrition, lack of education, early marriage and childbirth, harmful traditional practices, sexual violence, and lack of good quality or accessible maternal and health care[7–10].
To 2016, Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) the national prevalence of obstetric fistula is less than 1% among ever-married women. The highest prevalence(0.7%) occurs in the Amhara region.
OBF is treatable by surgery, by giving palliative care and can be prevented completely through timely access to competent emergency obstetric care as providing support from trained health care professionals throughout pregnancy, use of pantograph in all labor, providing access to family planning, promoting the practice of spacing between births, and postponing early marriage and by educating the communities and promoting education for girls are the key factors to prevent in long term[2,3,4,12].