1.Joshi D, O’Grady J, Dieterich D, Gazzard B, Agarwal K: Increasing burden of liver disease in patients with HIV infection. Lancet (London, England) 2011, 377(9772):1198–1209.
2.Platt L, Easterbrook P, Gower E, McDonald B, Sabin K, McGowan C, Yanny I, Razavi H, Vickerman P: Prevalence and burden of HCV co-infection in people living with HIV: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious diseases 2016, 16(7):797–808.
3.Lo Re V, 3rd, Kallan MJ, Tate JP, Localio AR, Lim JK, Goetz MB, Klein MB, Rimland D, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Butt AA et al: Hepatic decompensation in antiretroviral-treated patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus compared with hepatitis C virus-monoinfected patients: a cohort study. Annals of internal medicine 2014, 160(6):369–379.
4.Page EE, Nelson M, Kelleher P: HIV and hepatitis C coinfection: pathogenesis and microbial translocation. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 2011, 6(6):472–477.
5.Bruno R, Galastri S, Sacchi P, Cima S, Caligiuri A, DeFranco R, Milani S, Gessani S, Fantuzzi L, Liotta F et al: gp120 modulates the biology of human hepatic stellate cells: a link between HIV infection and liver fibrogenesis. Gut 2010, 59(4):513–520.
6.Bruno R, Sacchi P, Puoti M, Maiocchi L, Patruno SF, Cima S, Filice G: Pathogenesis of liver damage in HCV-HIV patients. AIDS reviews 2008, 10(1):15–24.
7.Rotman Y, Liang TJ: Coinfection with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus: virological, immunological, and clinical outcomes. Journal of virology 2009, 83(15):7366–7374.
8.Operskalski EA, Kovacs A: HIV/HCV co-infection: pathogenesis, clinical complications, treatment, and new therapeutic technologies. Current HIV/AIDS reports 2011, 8(1):12–22.
9.Kim AY, Chung RT: Coinfection with HIV–1 and HCV—a one-two punch. Gastroenterology 2009, 137(3):795–814.
10.Dinh DM, Volpe GE, Duffalo C, Bhalchandra S, Tai AK, Kane AV, Wanke CA, Ward HD: Intestinal microbiota, microbial translocation, and systemic inflammation in chronic HIV infection. The Journal of infectious diseases 2015, 211(1):19–27.
11.Albillos A, Lario M, Alvarez-Mon M: Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction: distinctive features and clinical relevance. Journal of hepatology 2014, 61(6):1385–1396.
12.Nakamoto N, Kanai TJFii: Role of toll-like receptors in immune activation and tolerance in the liver. 2014, 5:221.
13.Sacchi P, Cima S, Zuccaro V, Columpsi P, Sarda C, Mariani M, Puoti M, Bruno RJAr: Understanding the mechanisms of fibrogenesis in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients: implications for clinical practice. 2015, 17(3):159–170.
14.Sitia G, De Bona A, Bagaglio S, Galli L, Paties CT, Uberti-Foppa C, Guidotti LG, Lazzarin A, Morsica G: Naive HIV/HCV-coinfected patients have higher intrahepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines than coinfected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. Antiviral therapy 2006, 11(3):385–389.
15.Hunt PW, Lee SA, Siedner MJ: Immunologic Biomarkers, Morbidity, and Mortality in Treated HIV Infection. The Journal of infectious diseases 2016, 214 Suppl 2:S44–50.
16.Peters L, Neuhaus J, Duprez D, Neaton JD, Tracy R, Klein MB, Mocroft A, Rockstroh J, Dore G, Lundgren JDJJoCV: Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and microbial translocation in HIV/HCV co-infected patients in the SMART study. 2014, 60(3):295–300.
17.Shmagel KV, Saidakova EV, Shmagel NG, Korolevskaya LB, Chereshnev VA, Robinson J, Grivel JC, Douek DC, Margolis L, Anthony DDJHm: Systemic inflammation and liver damage in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection. 2016, 17(8):581–589.
18.Hu S, Ghabril M, Amet T, Hu N, Byrd D, Yang K, Vuppalanchi R, Saxena R, Desai M, Lan JJPo: HIV–1 coinfection profoundly alters intrahepatic chemokine but not inflammatory cytokine profiles in HCV-infected subjects. 2014, 9(2):e86964.
19.Jia M, Luo H, Ma Y, Wang N, Smith K, Mei J, Lu R, Lu J, Fu L, Zhang QJJJoAIDS: The HIV epidemic in Yunnan province, China, 1989–2007. 2010, 53:S34-S40.
20.Duan S, Jin Z, Liu X, Yang Y, Ye R, Tang R, Gao M, Ding Y, He NJBo: Tobacco and alcohol use among drug users receiving methadone maintenance treatment: a cross-sectional study in a rural prefecture of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. 2017, 7(3):e014643.
21.Ding Y, Duan S, Ye R, Yang Y, Yao S, Wang J, Cao D, Liu X, Lu L, Jia MJJovh: More improvement than progression of liver fibrosis following antiretroviral therapy in a longitudinal cohort of HIV‐infected patients with or without HBV and HCV co‐infections. 2017, 24(5):412–420.
22.Tada T, Kumada T, Toyoda H, Kiriyama S, Tanikawa M, Hisanaga Y, Kanamori A, Kitabatake S, Yama T, Tanaka J: Long-term prognosis of patients with chronic hepatitis C who did not receive interferon-based therapy: causes of death and analysis based on the FIB–4 index. Journal of gastroenterology 2016, 51(4):380–389.
23.Sterling RK, Lissen E, Clumeck N, Sola R, Correa MC, Montaner J, M SS, Torriani FJ, Dieterich DT, Thomas DL et al: Development of a simple noninvasive index to predict significant fibrosis in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md) 2006, 43(6):1317–1325.
24.Vallet-Pichard A, Mallet V, Nalpas B, Verkarre V, Nalpas A, Dhalluin-Venier V, Fontaine H, Pol S: FIB–4: an inexpensive and accurate marker of fibrosis in HCV infection. comparison with liver biopsy and fibrotest. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md) 2007, 46(1):32–36.
25.Zhang T, Tully DC, Zhou S, He NJPo: Characteristics of HCV co-infection among HIV infected individuals from an area with high risk of blood-borne infections in central China. 2014, 9(4):e94219.
26.Armstrong RA: When to use the Bonferroni correction. Ophthalmic & physiological optics: the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists) 2014, 34(5):502–508.
27.Down C, Mehta N, Marks K: The Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, Liver-Related Outcomes, and Death Over 10 Years in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients With and Without Steatosis. AIDS research and human retroviruses 2016, 32(9):868–871.
28.Durier N, Yunihastuti E, Ruxrungtham K, Kinh NV, Kamarulzaman A, Boettiger D, Widhani A, Avihingsanon A, Huy BV, Syed Omar SF et al: Chronic hepatitis C infection and liver disease in HIV-coinfected patients in Asia. Journal of viral hepatitis 2017, 24(3):187–196.
29.Merli M, Galli L, Castagna A, Salpietro S, Gianotti N, Messina E, Poli A, Morsica G, Bagaglio S, Cernuschi M et al: Diagnostic accuracy of APRI, FIB–4 and Forns for the detection of liver cirrhosis in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. The new microbiologica 2016, 39(2):110–113.
30.Pembroke T, Deschenes M, Lebouche B, Benmassaoud A, Sewitch M, Ghali P, Wong P, Halme A, Vuille-Lessard E, Pexos C et al: Hepatic steatosis progresses faster in HIV mono-infected than HIV/HCV co-infected patients and is associated with liver fibrosis. Journal of hepatology 2017, 67(4):801–808.
31.Beudeker BJB, van Oord GW, Arends JE, Schulze Zur Wiesch J, van der Heide MS, de Knegt RJ, Verbon A, Boonstra A, Claassen MAA: Mucosal-associated invariant T-cell frequency and function in blood and liver of HCV mono- and HCV/HIV co-infected patients with advanced fibrosis. Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 2018, 38(3):458–468.
32.Chen ZW, Li Z, Wang QH, Wu XL, Li H, Ren H, Hu P: Large Disparity between Prevalence and Treatment Rates for Hepatitis C in Western China. Journal of clinical and translational hepatology 2018, 6(4):385–390.
33.Shmagel KV, Saidakova EV, Shmagel NG, Korolevskaya LB, Chereshnev VA, Robinson J, Grivel JC, Douek DC, Margolis L, Anthony DD et al: Systemic inflammation and liver damage in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection. HIV medicine 2016, 17(8):581–589.
34.Funderburg NT, Andrade A, Chan ES, Rosenkranz SL, Lu D, Clagett B, Pilch-Cooper HA, Rodriguez B, Feinberg J, Daar E et al: Dynamics of immune reconstitution and activation markers in HIV+ treatment-naive patients treated with raltegravir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine. PloS one 2013, 8(12):e83514.
35.Sacchi P, Cima S, Zuccaro V, Columpsi P, Sarda C, Mariani M, Puoti M, Bruno R: Understanding the Mechanisms of Fibrogenesis in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients: Implications for Clinical Practice. AIDS reviews 2015, 17(3):159–170.
36.Shmagel KV, Saidakova EV: Systemic inflammation and liver damage in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection. 2016, 17(8):581–589.
37.Dirchwolf M, Ruf AE: Role of systemic inflammation in cirrhosis: From pathogenesis to prognosis. World journal of hepatology 2015, 7(16):1974–1981.
38.Xu R, Zhang Z, Wang FS: Liver fibrosis: mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury. Cellular & molecular immunology 2012, 9(4):296–301.
39.McGaha TL, Bona CA: Role of profibrogenic cytokines secreted by T cells in fibrotic processes in scleroderma. Autoimmunity reviews 2002, 1(3):174–181.
40.Balagopal A, Philp FH, Astemborski J, Block TM, Mehta A, Long R, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Cox AL, Thomas DL et al: Human immunodeficiency virus-related microbial translocation and progression of hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2008, 135(1):226–233.
41.de Lalla C, Galli G, Aldrighetti L, Romeo R, Mariani M, Monno A, Nuti S, Colombo M, Callea F, Porcelli SA et al: Production of profibrotic cytokines by invariant NKT cells characterizes cirrhosis progression in chronic viral hepatitis. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950) 2004, 173(2):1417–1425.
42.Heymann F, Hammerich L, Storch D, Bartneck M, Huss S, Russeler V, Gassler N, Lira SA, Luedde T, Trautwein C et al: Hepatic macrophage migration and differentiation critical for liver fibrosis is mediated by the chemokine receptor C-C motif chemokine receptor 8 in mice. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md) 2012, 55(3):898–909.
43.Graham CS, Wells A, Liu T, Sherman KE, Peters M, Chung RT, Bhan AK, Andersen J, Koziel MJ: Antigen-specific immune responses and liver histology in HIV and hepatitis C coinfection. AIDS (London, England) 2005, 19(8):767–773.
44.Knight B, Lim R, Yeoh GC, Olynyk JK: Interferon-gamma exacerbates liver damage, the hepatic progenitor cell response and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic liver injury. Journal of hepatology 2007, 47(6):826–833.
45.Keating SM, Dodge JL, Norris PJ, Heitman J, Gange SJ, French AL, Glesby MJ, Edlin BR, Latham PS, Villacres MC et al: The effect of HIV infection and HCV viremia on inflammatory mediators and hepatic injury-The Women’s Interagency HIV Study. PloS one 2017, 12(9):e0181004.
46.Meng F, Wang K, Aoyama T, Grivennikov SI, Paik Y, Scholten D, Cong M, Iwaisako K, Liu X, Zhang M et al: Interleukin–17 signaling in inflammatory, Kupffer cells, and hepatic stellate cells exacerbates liver fibrosis in mice. Gastroenterology 2012, 143(3):765–776.e763.
47.Dirchwolf M, Podhorzer A, Marino M, Shulman C, Cartier M, Zunino M, Paz S, Munoz A, Bocassi A, Gimenez J et al: Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis: Distinct cytokines phenotypes according to cirrhosis severity. Cytokine 2016, 77:14–25.
48.Cheever AW, Williams ME, Wynn TA, Finkelman FD, Seder RA, Cox TM, Hieny S, Caspar P, Sher A: Anti-IL–4 treatment of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice inhibits development of T cells and non-B, non-T cells expressing Th2 cytokines while decreasing egg-induced hepatic fibrosis. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md: 1950) 1994, 153(2):753–759.
49.Kaspar MB, Sterling RK: Mechanisms of liver disease in patients infected with HIV. BMJ open gastroenterology 2017, 4(1):e000166.
50.Zeremski M, Petrovic LM, Chiriboga L, Brown QB, Yee HT, Kinkhabwala M, Jacobson IM, Dimova R, Markatou M, Talal AH: Intrahepatic levels of CXCR3-associated chemokines correlate with liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md) 2008, 48(5):1440–1450.
51.Tazi KA, Quioc JJ, Abdel-Razek W, Tellier Z, Guichard C, Ogier-Denis E, Lebrec D, Moreau R: Protein array technology to investigate cytokine production by monocytes from patients with advanced alcoholic cirrhosis: An ex vivo pilot study. Hepatology research: the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology 2009, 39(7):706–715.
52.Medrano LM, Garcia-Broncano P, Berenguer J, Gonzalez-Garcia J, Jimenez-Sousa MA, Guardiola JM, Crespo M, Quereda C, Sanz J, Canorea I et al: Elevated liver stiffness is linked to increased biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients. AIDS (London, England) 2018, 32(9):1095–1105.
53.Harvey CE, Post JJ, Palladinetti P, Freeman AJ, Ffrench RA, Kumar RK, Marinos G, Lloyd AR: Expression of the chemokine IP–10 (CXCL10) by hepatocytes in chronic hepatitis C virus infection correlates with histological severity and lobular inflammation. Journal of leukocyte biology 2003, 74(3):360–369.
54.Berenguer J, Fernandez-Rodriguez A, Jimenez-Sousa MA, Cosin J, Zarate P, Micheloud D, Lopez JC, Miralles P, Catalan P, Resino S: High plasma CXCL10 levels are associated with HCV-genotype 1, and higher insulin resistance, fibrosis, and HIV viral load in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. Cytokine 2012, 57(1):25–29.
55.Sandler NG, Koh C, Roque A, Eccleston JL, Siegel RB, Demino M, Kleiner DE, Deeks SG, Liang TJ, Heller TJG: Host response to translocated microbial products predicts outcomes of patients with HBV or HCV infection. 2011, 141(4):1220–1230. e1223.
56.Balagopal A, Gama L, Franco V, Russell JN, Quinn J, Higgins Y, Smeaton LM, Clements JE, Thomas DL, Gupta AJPO: Detection of microbial translocation in HIV and SIV infection using the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay is masked by serum and plasma. 2012, 7(8):e41258.
57.French AL, Evans CT, Agniel DM, Cohen MH, Peters M, Landay AL, Desai SNJTJoid: Microbial translocation and liver disease progression in women coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus. 2013, 208(4):679–689.
58.Hutchinson SJ, Bird SM, Goldberg DJ: Influence of alcohol on the progression of hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 2005, 3(11):1150–1159.