Socio demographic characteristics
A total of 207 respondents, 120 (58% female) subjects participated in the study. The age distribution of majority of the respondents 137 (66.2%) were between 19-40 years of age and the mean age of participants was 33.7 ±14.2 SD years, with a range of 13 - 78 years.
Of the study subjects, 96 (46.4%) were from Amhara region (surrounding Lake Tana) followed by 56 (27.1%) were from Oromia region (surrounding Assela town). Concerning their educational status, almost half 98 (47.3%) of participants were illiterate, 49 (23.7%) were at elementary schooling and 37 (17.9%) were at secondary school. Majority of participants 82 (39.6%) were house wife, 72 (34.8%) were farmers and 21 (10.1%) were students.
Awareness level about avian human influenza
Almost all participants 200 (96.6%) responded that there wasn’t a sick person in the household having similar symptom with AI. Regarding participants’ awareness, almost all 196 (94.7) study subjects, haven’t heard of Avian Influenza. The remaining 11 (5.3%) of them mentioned that they have heard about AI. From those respondents, who have never heard about AI, majority 112 (54.1%) are female and most 130 (62.8%) are with in age group of 19-40 years. The highest number of participants 96 (46.4%) who are not aware of AI are illiterate, followed by 45 (21.7%) are elementary school and 35 (16.9%) are secondary school.
Majority of participants 90 (43.5%) mentioned their thoughts on how people get influenza is inhalation of air droplet (breathing), 57 (27%) mentioned that contact with ill person and 35 (16.9%) said that eating raw poultry meat and egg products. Among those 90 respondents who mentioned inhalation of air droplets females’ account the highest number which is 58 (28%) and most 76 (36.7%) are illiterate.
About half 103 (49.8%) of study subjects mentioned their thought on how AI can be cured is, by using modern medicine followed by about 54 (26.1%) subjects mentioned traditional medicine and 42 (20.3%) participants mentioned holy water.
When participants were asked their thoughts regarding the preventive measures for AI, 75 (36.2%) said keeping hand hygiene, 58 (28%) said respiratory hygiene and 40 (19.3%) mentioned environmental hygiene.
Most participants 180 (87%) haven’t ever experienced respiratory infection and the remaining 27 (13%) had experienced Respiratory Tract Infection (RTI). Among those who ever experienced RTI, 9 (33.3%) individuals visited health facility when they first get ill and 9 (33.3%) of them visited traditional healers. The number of people living together in one household for 138 (66.7%) participants, ranged 4-8 individuals and followed by for 49 (23.7%) participants has <4 individuals in a single room.
Regarding participants’ contact history for the last 10 days, 6 (2.9%) of study subjects had a close contact with a person who had fever and cough, and described the modes of contact was speaking and caring. The rest 201 (97.1%) participants did not have any contact with a person with those symptoms. About 34 (16.4%) participants responded that they had contact with a person who had a close contact with animals and the remaining 173 (83.6%) haven’t had contact history.
Human exposure level to animals factors for HPAI
Of all participants, 142 (68.6%) had close contact with animals. Of those participants, 32 (15.5%) mentioned that there were a death of those animals whom they had contact with and the remaining 65 (31.4%) haven’t had close contact with animals. When respondents were asked if they have touched animals during the last 10 days, sixty three (30.4%) participants had direct contact with animals and their remaining. From overall, 44 (21.3%) of participants have visited live animal market selling during the last 10 days and the rest 163 (78.7%) did not visit. When participants were asked what would they do if they get cluster of sick poultry/dead birds, more than half 118 (57%) of participants said that they would dispose to waste removal area, 38 (18.4%) do not know what will they do and 37 (17.9%) said that they will burn it.
Level of participants exposure to food factors for HPAI
From overall participants, 27 (13%) of them has the habit of consuming raw vegetable or fruit. Sixty seven (32.4%) participants reported consumption of raw meat and the remaining 140 (67.6%) haven’t the habit of consuming raw meat products. Among all respondents 68 (32.9%) of them mentioned that they have slaughtered animal and handled raw meat for meal but not for the remaining 138 (66.7%) of participants.
Measures of Associations
In the bivariate logistic regression education showed significant association with the awareness level of participants on HPAI and respondents’ age and occupation showed significant association with contact with poultry and domestic animals.
Based on the multivariate analysis, education showed statistically significant association with participants’ response on the awareness of HPAI. Participants with the age range of 19-40 years had more likely to have contact with animals (AOR=0.243; 95% CI=0.062, 0.953, P=0.042). Farmers and students are likely to have frequent contact with poultries and domestic animals (AOR=26.988; 95%CI=6.625, 109.941, P=<0.001) AOR (10.447; 95%CI=3.044, 35.853, P=<0.001).
Hem-agglutination test result of poultry specimens for avian influenza
From the total of 819 serum samples collected and carried out the hem agglutination test, the result were found negative (0 - 22) titration. The result interpreted according to NAHDIC hem agglutination inhibition Test method for avian influenza (AI).
RT-PCR test result of poultry specimens for avian influenza
From the total of 1836 swab samples and 4211 fecal droplet tested by RT-PCR. The result revealed that all faces droplet and swab samples were found negative for avian influenza virus nucleic acid