Ethics approval and consent to participate
This study obtained approvals from the institutions involved namely Harare Central Hospital (HCHEC 080416/21); Chitungwiza Central Hospital ethics committees (dated 28/04/16) which approved sample collection from their hospital antenatal clinics and the Joint Research Ethics Committee (JREC/341/17) for the College of Health Sciences and Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals. The study was also approved by Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe (MRCZ A/2054) and (MRCZ/B/1403). All information of participants was kept confidential. Written informed consent from the study participants was sought and granted by the participants. All information and data regarding of the participants was kept confidential and it was only accessible to personnel involved in the study. All electronic data was password protected.
Consent for publication
Availability of data and material
The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
There was no financial support.
RM, RTM, MGM: conceived the idea and contributed to the study design. MGM: Cohort recruitment, sample collection and completed the antibiotic resistance testing. RM: designed and performed the molecular testing. RTM: designed and supervised the project. RM, RTM: analyzed data and interpreted the results. RM, RTM, MGM: wrote manuscript. All authors read and approved the final paper for publication.
The authors would like to express their gratitude to the members of the Department of Medical Microbiology and the Department of Chemical Pathology (University of Zimbabwe). We would like extend our great appreciation to Dr. L R. Mazengera and the staff of Immuno-Path Diagnostic Laboratory Services, the National Microbiology Reference Laboratory (NMRL) and the Department of Medicine (University of Zimbabwe) for their facilities and equipment. We wish to thank and acknowledge the support given by Taona Mudhluli.
MSc Med. Micro. (UZ); BSc (Hons) App. Bio. Biochem. (NUST)
Email: [email protected]
Ph. Cell: +263773099777
Affiliation: 1Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, National Polio Laboratory, P. O. Box A178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe
Professor Rooyen T Mavenyengwa
BSc (Hons) Bio. Sci.; MSc Med. Micro. (UZ); DPhil Molecular Micro. (NTNU, Norway); P Grad CE (UZ)
Email: [email protected]/[email protected]
Ph. Cell: +263772594175
Ph. Bus: +263242791631 Ext 2150
Affiliation: 1Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, P. O. Box A178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe
Dr. Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe
PhD (UCT, SA), MSc Microbiology (UZ), MBA (Nicosia), Dip MLSc, Lic Ed. Biology (Cuba)
Email: [email protected]
Ph. Cell: 263773214886 /+27728855200
Affiliation: 2Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Room No. 3.22 Falmouth Building, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa