Preprint: Please note that this article has not completed peer review.
Research article

Genetic Diversity and Epidemiology of Genogroup II Noroviruses in Children with Acute Sporadic Gastroenteritis in Shanghai, China, 2012-2017

Lijuan Lu, Huaqing Zhong, Menghua Xu, Liyun Su, Lingfeng Cao, Ran Jia, Jin Xu
DOI: 10.21203/rs.2.9681/v3

Abstract

Background Noroviruses (NoVs) are considered an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) across all age groups, especially in children under five years of age. We investigated the epidemiology of noroviruses in outpatient children from the Children’s Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai, China. Methods Stool specimens were collected between January 2012 and December 2017 from 1433 children under five years of age with acute gastroenteritis. All samples were analysed by conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for genogroup II NoVs amplifying both the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and partial capsid genes. The Norovirus Genotyping Tool v.2.0 (https://www.rivm.nl/mpf/typingtool/norovirus/) was used for genotyping the strains, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted by MEGA 6.0. Results From 2012 to 2017, GII NoVs were detected in 15.4% (220/1433) of the samples, with the highest detection rate in children aged 7-12 months (19.2%, 143/746). The seasons with the highest prevalence of GII NoVs infection were autumn and winter . Based on genetic analysis of RdRp, GII.Pe (74.5%%, 137/184) was the most predominant RdRp genotype from 2013 to 2017, while GII.P4 played a dominant role in 2012 (55.6%, 21/36). Among the capsid genotypes, the most prevalent NoV genotype from 2012 to 2017 was GII.4 (73.6%, 162/220). On the basis of genetic analysis of RdRp and capsid sequences, the strains were clustered into 19 RdRp/capsid genotypes, and 12 of them were discordant, such as GII.Pe/GII.4-Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.P7/GII.6, GII.Pe/GII.3, and GII.P16/GII.2. Starting with 2013, GII.Pe/GII.4-Sydney_2012 had completely replaced the pandemic GII.P4-2006b/GII.4-2006b subtype and was detected in children across all age groups. Conclusions The present study shows high detection rates and the genetic diversity of circulating NoV GII genotypes in paediatric AGE samples from Shanghai. The findings emphasize the importance of continuous molecular surveillance of emerging NoV strains. Keywords: Norovirus, RdRp/capsid genotypes, Epidemiology, Children, Acute gastroenteritis

Keywords
Norovirus, RdRp/capsid genotypes, Epidemiology, Children, Acute gastroenteritis

Figures

Background

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Abbreviations

Declarations

References

Tables

STATUS: Accepted

Comments: 0
PDF Downloads: 0
HTML Views: 20

Integrity Check:

Peer Review Timeline

Version 3

Posted 14 Aug, 2019

  • No community comments so far
  • Editorial decision: Accept

    On 05 Aug, 2019

  • Editor assigned

    On 02 Aug, 2019

  • Submission checks complete

    On 01 Aug, 2019

  • Editor invited

    On 01 Aug, 2019

Version 2

Posted 19 Jul, 2019

View this version

Version 1

Posted 20 May, 2019

View this version

Subject Areas

Infectious Diseases

More from BMC Infectious Diseases

Comments (0)

Comments can take the form of short reviews, notes or questions to the author. Comments will be posted immediately, but removed and moderated if flagged.

Learn more about our company.

Preprint: Please note that this article has not completed peer review.
Research article

Genetic Diversity and Epidemiology of Genogroup II Noroviruses in Children with Acute Sporadic Gastroenteritis in Shanghai, China, 2012-2017

Lijuan Lu, Huaqing Zhong, Menghua Xu, Liyun Su, Lingfeng Cao, Ran Jia, Jin Xu

STATUS: Accepted

Comments: 0
PDF Downloads: 0
HTML Views: 20

Integrity Check:

  • Article

  • Peer Review Timeline

  • Related Articles

  • Comments

Abstract

Background Noroviruses (NoVs) are considered an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) across all age groups, especially in children under five years of age. We investigated the epidemiology of noroviruses in outpatient children from the Children’s Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai, China. Methods Stool specimens were collected between January 2012 and December 2017 from 1433 children under five years of age with acute gastroenteritis. All samples were analysed by conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for genogroup II NoVs amplifying both the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and partial capsid genes. The Norovirus Genotyping Tool v.2.0 (https://www.rivm.nl/mpf/typingtool/norovirus/) was used for genotyping the strains, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted by MEGA 6.0. Results From 2012 to 2017, GII NoVs were detected in 15.4% (220/1433) of the samples, with the highest detection rate in children aged 7-12 months (19.2%, 143/746). The seasons with the highest prevalence of GII NoVs infection were autumn and winter . Based on genetic analysis of RdRp, GII.Pe (74.5%%, 137/184) was the most predominant RdRp genotype from 2013 to 2017, while GII.P4 played a dominant role in 2012 (55.6%, 21/36). Among the capsid genotypes, the most prevalent NoV genotype from 2012 to 2017 was GII.4 (73.6%, 162/220). On the basis of genetic analysis of RdRp and capsid sequences, the strains were clustered into 19 RdRp/capsid genotypes, and 12 of them were discordant, such as GII.Pe/GII.4-Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.P7/GII.6, GII.Pe/GII.3, and GII.P16/GII.2. Starting with 2013, GII.Pe/GII.4-Sydney_2012 had completely replaced the pandemic GII.P4-2006b/GII.4-2006b subtype and was detected in children across all age groups. Conclusions The present study shows high detection rates and the genetic diversity of circulating NoV GII genotypes in paediatric AGE samples from Shanghai. The findings emphasize the importance of continuous molecular surveillance of emerging NoV strains. Keywords: Norovirus, RdRp/capsid genotypes, Epidemiology, Children, Acute gastroenteritis

Figures

Background

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Abbreviations

Declarations

References

Tables