Preprint: Please note that this article has not completed peer review.
Research article

KAWASAKI DISEASE IN INFANTS LESS THAN ONE YEAR OF AGE: AN ITALIAN COHORT FROM A SINGLE CENTER

Greta Mastrangelo, Rolando Cimaz, Giovan Battista Calabri, Gabriele Simonini, Donatella Lasagni, Massimo Resti, Sandra Trapani

Abstract

Background and aims

Few data are currently available for Kawasaki disease (KD) below 12 months especially in Caucasians. This study aims to analyze clinical and laboratory features of KD among an Italian cohort of infants.

Methods

A retrospective chart review of KD children aged less than one year at time of disease onset between January 2008-December 2017 was performed. Clinical data, laboratory parameters, instrumental findings, treatment and outcome were collected in a customized database.

Results

Among 113 KD patients, 32 (28.3%) were younger than 1 year. Nineteen patients aged below 6 months, and three below 3 months. The median age was 5.7 ±2.7 months. The mean time to diagnosis was 7±3 days and was longer in the incomplete forms (8 ± 4 vs 6 ± 1 days). Conjunctival injection was present in 26 patients (81.2%); rash in 25 (78.1%); extremity changes in 18 (56.2%); mucosal changes in 13 (40.6%,) and lymphadenopathy only in 7 (21.8%). Mucosal changes were the least common features in incomplete forms (18.2%). Twenty-two patients (68.7%) had incomplete KD. Nineteen (59.4%) had cardiac involvement, of whom 13 (59.0%) had incomplete form. ESR, PCR and platelet values were higher in complete KD; especially, ESR resulted significantly higher in complete forms (80 ± 25.7 mm/h vs 50 ± 28.6 mm/h; p = 0.01). Conversely, AST level was statistically significant higher in patients with incomplete forms (95.4 ± 132.7 UI/L vs 29.8 ± 13.2 UI/L; p = 0.03). All patients received IVIG. Response was reported in 26/32 patients; 6 cases needed a second dose of IVIG and one required a dose of anakinra.

Conclusion

In our cohort, incomplete disease was commonly found, resulting in delayed diagnoses and poor cardiac prognosis. Infants with incomplete KD seem to have a more severe disease and a greater predilection for coronary involvement than those with complete KD. AST was significantly higher in incomplete forms, thus AST levels might be a new finding in incomplete forms’ diagnosis. Eventually, we highlight a higher resistance to IVIG treatment. To our knowledge this is the first study involving an Italian cohort of patients with KD below 12 months.

Keywords
Kawasaki disease, Infant, Coronary artery aneurysms, AST, Caucasians

Background

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

List of Abbreviations

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References

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Preprint: Please note that this article has not completed peer review.
Research article

KAWASAKI DISEASE IN INFANTS LESS THAN ONE YEAR OF AGE: AN ITALIAN COHORT FROM A SINGLE CENTER

Greta Mastrangelo, Rolando Cimaz, Giovan Battista Calabri, Gabriele Simonini, Donatella Lasagni, Massimo Resti, Sandra Trapani

STATUS: In Review

Comments: 0
PDF Downloads: 0
HTML Views: 8

Integrity Check:

  • Article

  • Peer Review Timeline

  • Related Articles

  • Comments

Abstract

Background and aims

Few data are currently available for Kawasaki disease (KD) below 12 months especially in Caucasians. This study aims to analyze clinical and laboratory features of KD among an Italian cohort of infants.

Methods

A retrospective chart review of KD children aged less than one year at time of disease onset between January 2008-December 2017 was performed. Clinical data, laboratory parameters, instrumental findings, treatment and outcome were collected in a customized database.

Results

Among 113 KD patients, 32 (28.3%) were younger than 1 year. Nineteen patients aged below 6 months, and three below 3 months. The median age was 5.7 ±2.7 months. The mean time to diagnosis was 7±3 days and was longer in the incomplete forms (8 ± 4 vs 6 ± 1 days). Conjunctival injection was present in 26 patients (81.2%); rash in 25 (78.1%); extremity changes in 18 (56.2%); mucosal changes in 13 (40.6%,) and lymphadenopathy only in 7 (21.8%). Mucosal changes were the least common features in incomplete forms (18.2%). Twenty-two patients (68.7%) had incomplete KD. Nineteen (59.4%) had cardiac involvement, of whom 13 (59.0%) had incomplete form. ESR, PCR and platelet values were higher in complete KD; especially, ESR resulted significantly higher in complete forms (80 ± 25.7 mm/h vs 50 ± 28.6 mm/h; p = 0.01). Conversely, AST level was statistically significant higher in patients with incomplete forms (95.4 ± 132.7 UI/L vs 29.8 ± 13.2 UI/L; p = 0.03). All patients received IVIG. Response was reported in 26/32 patients; 6 cases needed a second dose of IVIG and one required a dose of anakinra.

Conclusion

In our cohort, incomplete disease was commonly found, resulting in delayed diagnoses and poor cardiac prognosis. Infants with incomplete KD seem to have a more severe disease and a greater predilection for coronary involvement than those with complete KD. AST was significantly higher in incomplete forms, thus AST levels might be a new finding in incomplete forms’ diagnosis. Eventually, we highlight a higher resistance to IVIG treatment. To our knowledge this is the first study involving an Italian cohort of patients with KD below 12 months.

Background

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

List of Abbreviations

Declarations

References

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