This study examined land tenure systems and rice productivity in Nigeria. Primary data were used for the study. Data were collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. A four-stage sampling technique was used to select a total sample size of three hundred and forty-nine (349) rice farmers based on the number of questionnaires correctly filled and returned from the selected sampled size. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, total factor productivity, and Stochastic production frontier model. The study revealed that large portion of the land (over 94%) used for rice production were acquired through inheritance mode of land acquisition and communal type of land tenure system widely practiced. The result of total factor productivity indicated that 62.18% of the rice farmers were at sub-optimal productivity level. The results of the stochastic production frontier function revealed that seed (P< 0.10), and fertilizer application (P<0.01) were the significant factors influencing technical efficiency of rice production in the study area. Based on the findings, the study recommend that current land use act and policy should be amended to prevent concurrent grabbing of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes in order to enhance availability and accessibility of land for agriculture.