Morchella is well known for its high nutritional value and medicinal benefits(Kanwal and Reddy 2014). The fruit bodies and mycelium of Morchella are rich in nutrients, including protein, fat, carbohydrates, crude fiber, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, vitamins and other components(Enkhjargal et al. 2011). Morchella is sweet in taste and can be used as medicine (Harpreet et al. 2011) which is famous for its antioxidant properties and shows extremely high medicinal value (B?Ckerman and Maliranta 2013). Morchella contains polysaccharides, enzymes, pyrone antibiotics, fatty acids and other chemical components(Gursoy et al. 2009). Modern medical research has shown that Morchella has various biology activities such as lowering blood lipids, regulating body immunity, anti-fatigue, protecting liver, anti-virus, inhibiting tumors, and reducing the side effects caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy(Hai-Bin 2019). However, there was a lack of a thorough and dynamic evaluation of the identified metabolites in Morchella fruit bodies and mycelium.
Metabolomics is a rapidly emerging discipline in bioomics and is an important part of systems biology(Widiarsih et al. 2021). Metabolomics research uses high-throughput chemical analysis technology to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of small molecule metabolites in biological samples(Lin et al. 2011). Previous studies have shown that metabolomics is widely used in nutrition science, disease diagnosis, toxicology, plant metabolism and response mechanism and other aspects (Muazu et al. 2021). Wang et al.(Wang et al. 2018)identified the nutrients in black sesame seeds and related metabolites that play a role in traditional Chinese medicine based on extensively targeted metabolomics technology. Ho et al. (Ho et al. 2018) used metabolomics technology to identify 6 compounds with antibacterial activity from black walnut. Based on the quantitative analysis of metabolites, metabolomics can be used for the analysis of metabolic pathways or metabolic networks, the basic research of metabolism of the macroscopic phenotypic phenomena of different organisms, and the metabolites of different diseases, drugs and other physical, chemical or pathogenic organisms(Zhou et al. 2020).
For the past few years, UPLC-ESI-MS/MS-based, widely targeted metabolome has become very popular in the field of analysis and identification of plant metabolites due to its advantages of high throughput, fast separation, high sensitivity, and wide coverage. UPLC-ESI-MS/MS-based widely targeted metabolome becomes an effective tool to deeply research secondary metabolites (Wang et al. 2019).
Up to now, researchers have reported that the types of bioactive compounds in fungi are often different. However, there is a lack of research about the use of widely targeted metabolome to analyze the metabolic components of Morchella fruiting bodies and Morchella mycelium. In this study, we selected Morchella fruit bodies and mycelium as research materials, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry technology to detect the types of metabolites of them. By means of comparing and analyzing their differences, it characterized the chemical substances in Morchella fruit bodies and mycelium from the perspective of different metabolites, providing reference for research on functional ingredients. Our study may be also help to understand the biological processes and mechanisms of the fruit bodies and mycelium more intuitively and effectively(Nadia et al. 2015) and might facilitate a deeply understanding of metabolites between Morchella fruit bodies and mycelium and provide a reference for their sufficient utilization in the future.