The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in unmineable coal seams is one of the geologic options earmarked to alleviate the emissions of the greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Direct flue gas injection into unmineable coal seams has been considered to partially offset the cost of the utilizing this technology. This paper presents findings of the evolution of chemical structural properties of two South African coals from Somkhele (Coal SML) and Ermelo (Coal EML) coalfields after long-term (2 232 hours) flue gas exposure by applying advanced analytical techniques. The two coal samples were exposed to a synthetic flue gas simulating coal-fired power plant gas emissions containing 12% CO 2 , 5.5% O 2 , 82% N 2 , 0.38% SO 2 , and 0.12% NO 2 under in-seam temperature and pressure conditions of 60 °C and 9.0 MPa, respectively. The advanced analytical techniques applied included universal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (UATRFTIR), carbon-13 solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 13 C ss NMR), and field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX) wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD). The UATR-FTIR spectra revealed weakened C─H, aliphatic C─C, C─O, ─OH, and out-of-plane aromatic C─H functional groups. The results from the treated coals of 13 C ss NMR for the structural parameters show notable changes in the oxygen functionalities reporting the aliphatic carbon bonded to oxygen, 𝑓 𝑎𝑙 𝑂 , while the WAXRD data showed some significant changes in the inter-layer spacing and the crystalline diameter as compared to the untreated coals.