Non-exhaust emission (NEE) from brake and tyre wear cause deleterious effects on human health, but the relationship with mobility has not been thoroughly examined. We construct an in silico agent-based traffic simulator for Central Seoul to illustrate the coupled problems of emissions, behaviour, and the estimated exposure to PM10 (particles less than 10 microns in size) for groups of drivers and subway commuters. The results show that significant extra particulates relative to the background exist along roadways where NEEs contributed some 40% of the roadside PM10. In terms of health risk, 88% of resident drivers had an acute health effect in late March but that kind of emergence rarely happened. By contrast, subway commuters’ health risk peaked at a maximum of 30% with frequent oscillations whenever the air pollution episodes occurred. A 90% vehicle restriction scenario reduced PM10 by 18-24%, and reduced the resident driver's risk by a factor of 2, but not effective for subway commuters as the group generally walked through background areas rather than along major roadways. Using an agent-based traffic simulator in a health context can give insights into how exposure and health outcomes can depend on the time of exposure and the mode of transport.