While resistance exercise effectively improves overall health in diabetic patients, the underlying biological mechanism by which resistance exercise improves metabolic function and glucose homeostasis remain mostly unknown. Previously, we identified a myometabolite-mediated metabolic pathway that is essential for the beneficial effects of resistance exercise on metabolic function. We found that resistance exercise-induced α-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) stimulates muscle hypertrophy and fat loss through 2-oxoglutarate receptor 1 (OXGR1)-dependent adrenal activation. Here, we provided evidence for the beneficial effects of AKG on glucose homeostasis in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, which are independent of OXGR1. We showed that circulating AKG levels are negatively correlated with the fraction of blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in both humans and mice and significantly decreased in DIO mice. Consistently, pharmacological elevation of AKG effectively decreased body weight, blood glucose, and hepatic gluconeogenesis without changing insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice. Notably, OXGR1KO blocked the inhibitory effects of AKG on body weight but failed to affect AKG’s suppression on blood glucose and hepatic gluconeogenesis, indicating distinct mechanisms for AKG’s regulation on energy balance and glucose homeostasis. In supporting this view, we showed that serpina1e, a member of protease inhibitor serpins superfamily, mediates the direct inhibitory effects of AKG on gluconeogenesis in both in vitro hepatocytes and liver slice. By using a liver-specific serpina1e deletion mouse model, we further demonstrated that liver serpina1e is required for the inhibitory effects of AKG on hepatic gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia in DIO mice. Finally, we provided in vitro evidence to support a model in which AKG decreases hepatic gluconeogenesis by targeting trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me3) in seprina1e promoter region. Our studies established an important role of AKG in glucose homeostasis, and identified the AKG-serpina1e pathway as potential therapeutic targets to attenuate hyperglycemia.