Current source is an indispensable component of magnetorheological (MR) systems. Though MR fluid has a phase change as fast as in 1 ms, the response of MR damper (MRD) to generate the damping force may be two orders of magnitude longer. Therefore, the rapid response of current source is a key to realize the real-time semi-active control of MR devices. This study proposes a programmable high-speed, low-cost current source exclusively for MR devices based on the synergy between supercapacitor and Buck converter (i.e., SSBC current source). SSBC current source features a strategy consisting of a lifting phase of supercapacitor and a following maintaining phase of Buck converter. Specifically, the high power density of supercapacitor contributes to rapidly lifting/raising the initial current, and then, like a “relay race”, the expected output is maintained through a Buck converter. Theoretical modeling and experiments are performed systematically. The response times (@ 95% of expected outputs) measured are 0.44, 0.84 and 1.88 ms for the outputs of 3, 6 and 9 A, respectively; these values are highlighted as the fastest level in this field. Besides, the response can be up to 24.6 and 43.7 times faster than the cases using supercapacitor and Buck converter to directly drive the MRD, respectively. SSBC current source is employed to generate a sequence of currents/magnetic inductions, only four variables of which need to be controlled programmatically: the order of lifting and maintaining phases, switching time of lifting phase, PWM duty cycle of Buck converter and duration of maintaining phase. The response time stability is verified by 100 cycles of on/off tests, showing a fluctuation of only 1.1%, which indicates a very reliable high-speed response. This study provides an exclusive power supply with a novel strategy for MR devices, which is believed to be an important promotion for MR technologies.