Subjects. We recruited 20 patients with OF from the Ophthalmology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University Hospital in Jiang Xi Province of China. The relevant inclusion criteria were: 1) patients with orbital fracture, who had not undergone surgical treatment; and, 2) patients without other ocular diseases (such as cataract, corneal ulcer, glaucoma, or macular degeneration).
The relevant exclusion criteria were: 1) presence of other ophthalmic diseases; 2) presence of central nervous system diseases; 3) having had ophthalmic surgery before; and, 4) patients unable to undergo an MRI examination.
In addition, we recruited 11 HCs matched by sex, age, and education level, who met the following criteria: 1) They lacked ocular or central nervous system diseases; and, 2) they lacked MRI scanning contraindications.
The 20 HCs were pair-matched with patients in the OF group according to gender, age, weight, and education level. The Medical Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University authorized and approved the methods used in the present study, which followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants were voluntaries, who had been explained the purpose, methods, procedures and underlying risks of the study. All participants signed informed consent forms.
MRI data acquisition. We acquired all MRI data with a Siemens Trio 3.0 T scanner associated with an 8-channel phased array probe coil (Trio; Siemens, Munich, Berlin, Germany). The MRI scanning parameters were based on those of a previous study(14).
fMRI data processing. We used MRIcro (www.MRIcro.com) to pre-filter and DPARSFA (http://rfmri.org/DPARSF), SPM8 (http://www.fifil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm), and the Resting-state Data Analysis Toolkit (REST, http://www.restfmri.net) to preprocess the data. More details have been published(14).
Degree centrality. We calculated the DC value by significant suprathreshold correlations between the subjects (or the degree of the binarized adjacency matrix) in the voxel function network based on the individual voxel-wise functional network. The voxel-wise DC map for each individual was transformed into a z-score map, using the following equation:
Zi= DCi – mean /std. Where Zi refers to the z score of the ith voxel, DCi refers to DC value of the ith voxel, mean refers to DC of all voxels in brain mask and std refers to the standard deviation14.
Statistical analysis. For demographic and clinical data, we used independent two-sample t-tests in SPSS 20.0 software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) to calculate differences in clinical features between patients and HCs; and, we considered P<0.05 as indicative of statistical significance. We used independent two-sample t-tests in the SPM8 toolkit to compare DC data between OF patients and HCs.
The association between behavioral performance and mean DC values was evaluated with correlation analyses.