An adaptive neural network (NN) backstepping quantized control based on command filter and disturbance observer is proposed for fractional-order nonlinear systems with asymmetric actuator dead-zone and unknown external disturbance in this paper. An adaptive NN mechanism is designed to estimate unknown functions, and a command filter is introduced to estimate the virtual control variable as well as its derivative, so the ``explosion of complexity" issue can be avoided existed in the classical backstepping method. To handle the unknown external disturbance, a fractional-order disturbance observer is developed. Moreover, a hysteresis-type quantizer is used to quantify the final input signal to overcome the system performance damage caused by the actuator dead-zone. The quantized input signal can ensure that all the involved signals keep bounded and the tracking error converges to an arbitrarily small region of the origin. Finally, two examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.