In the present study, parents preferred health behaviours did not effect on children vaccination. Only 3.7% of respondents did not vaccinate their children. Furthermore, parents with preferred health behaviours (proper eating habits and positive mental attitude) significantly more often reported that vaccines contain toxic ingredients. Also, parents with preventive behaviours more often reported that vaccines cause developmental disorders and autism. And, parents with positive mental attitudes significantly more often had doubts about vaccinating their children. Parents who vaccinated their children with combined and recommended vaccines showed significantly higher levels of health practices.
The present findings suggest less importance of parenteral health behaviour on children vaccination. It well known [24,25] that many factors impact on immunisation rates for example: social determinants such as young age of parents, level of parental education, family income, lack of health insurance, lack of periodic primary health care access, or pay for vaccines.
The role of the parents’ perceptions health beliefs and attitudes toward childhood immunization  are risk factors for decreased vaccination. Other studies [27-30] suggest that socioeconomic factors play a more important role, and parents’ beliefs may simply reflect their sociodemographic characteristics.
Our results on rate vaccination are consistent with a recent study from the United States . Ninety-six percent of parents reported that their children had received all vaccines recommended for children up to their age. Moreover, 3.5% of all parents indicated they had decided not to have their child/children get a recommended vaccine. As in our study, some parents reported that vaccines have ingredients that are unsafe (35%) and 19% believed that vaccines may cause as autism.
Also, similar rate children immunisation was found in a study from Israel  where 90%-89% children had full immunisation in the years 2008 and 2016. However, a declining confidence of parents in official recommendations for vaccination from 87% to 72% was demonstrated.
It is believed that greater health behaviour awareness in the family results in better the health effects for its individual members . The present and future health of the family system and all its members depends largely on the parents' actions, decisions, conduct, choices, and preferred lifestyle. It should be noted that parents raise children based not only on scientific and popular science knowledge but also on colloquial knowledge. These types of knowledge may have a positive or negative influence on the development of family behaviour patterns, the introduction of modifications and changes in behaviours and the consolidation of previously understood attitudes, including those related to health .
In the currently studied population, all categories of studied health behaviours (proper eating habits, preventive behaviours, a positive mental attitude, and health practices) were at a similar level; however, the most frequent behaviours was a positive mental attitude.
In the literature on the subject, health behaviours include the conscious undertaking of health-oriented actions (various behaviours related to physical health, mental health, self-management of health, preventive examinations, safe behaviours in everyday life, common sense behaviour regarding diseases) and the elimination of all activities that pose a threat to life and health, both directly and in the long term (e.g., abstaining from tobacco, alcohol, recreational drugs, and psychoactive substances) [1,3]. One of the most important health behaviours is vaccination, which is the most effective preventive method for combating diseases.
A survey of a representative sample of 990 adults in Poland showed that 79% of respondents considered vaccinations the most effective way to protect children from serious diseases. The vast majority of the surveyed parents (96.3%) declared that they vaccinated their children. The aforementioned survey of a representative random sample of 990 adults in Poland showed that 79% of respondents thought that vaccinating children causes more good than harm .
The present study showed that parents’ health behaviours were not statistically correlated their beliefs regarding the vaccination system, the quality of the vaccines used in Poland, the general obligation to gain immunity through "sickness," the need to vaccinate against all diseases and the acceptance of unvaccinated children in nurseries and kindergartens.
In a recent study from 2020, including 5736 parents from eighteen country European, survey on parents' attitudes and behaviours regarding their children's immunization was performed. Fifty six percent respondents described themselves as "not at all hesitant", and 24% respondents "somewhat hesitant", respectively. Vaccine confidence was highest in Portugal and Cyprus, and lowest in Bulgaria and Poland .
At present, more and more parents avoid vaccinating their children. Negative opinions that undermine the effectiveness and safety of preventive vaccinations as a form of infection prevention are widely disseminated [4,5]. There are so-called anti-vaccine movements that aim to reduce mass vaccination. On online portals and forums, there is information regarding the harmfulness of preventive vaccinations, complications arising from vaccinations, and the impact of mercury on the emergence of autism, autoimmune diseases, or weakening of the body's resistance. Anti-vaccine content is also spread among those who use homeopathic and natural medicine.
In the present study, parents who believed that vaccines can cause autism showed a significantly higher level of prophylactic behaviour. Statistically, there were significant differences in health behaviour levels related to views on the toxicity of vaccines, mainly in terms of proper eating habits and a positive mental attitude. Furthermore, 8% of the respondents reported that vaccines cause autism, 45% had no opinion, and 47% reported that vaccines do not cause autism. But only 3.7% did not vaccine their children. Parents beliefs that vaccines can cause autism are complex . However parents' belief that vaccination causes autism, twice as many parents vaccinated their children. Which may suggest that parents are not always telling the truth when completing the survey.
And our beliefs come from our values. A negative example of the dissemination of false information/ beliefs regarding vaccinations was the investigation by Wakefield, who put forward the concept of a relationship between the Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine (MMR) vaccination and autism .
The most common reason for hesitancy or refusal for MMR is autism which was conformed in many previous studies [35,36]. Furthermore, vaccine-hesitant parents in Switzerland believed the risks of vaccination were worse than measles itself .
It is worth emphasizing the limitations of this study. First, this study involved relatively small group of parents, mainly woman. Secondly, parents were of different ages and had different educational level. Finally, 15% of the respondents were in the medical professions.
In summary, it is worth re-emphasizing that the family, as the most important, most basic social group on which society is based, should provide future generations with educational development, including vaccinations, based on cooperation with health care units and other educational units.