Background and objective: In 2015, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was the eighth leading cause of death among adolescents worldwide. A third of them were infected during the adolescence period. Without investing in adolescent health and well-being, the current global target of ending HIV as a public health threat by 2030 may not be realized. HIV prevention in adolescents is particularly important as it not only benefits then now, but also as future adults as well as future generations. Attitude is one indicator of a person's behavior or action. However, little is known about the factors that influence adolescent’s attitudes towards prevention of HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to establish the determinants of adolescents’ attitude towards prevention of HIV AIDS among adolescents.
Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 370 high school students in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS and involved univariate and multivariate analysis.
Results: The internet and television were the major sources of information on reproductive health and HIV among the adolescents (98.9%) and (98.4%) respectively. The significant determinants of adolescents attitude towards HIV/AIDS prevention were the level of knowledge (p = 0.028) and self-efficacy (p = 0.034). Multivariate analysis showed that those respondents with positive self-efficacy were 1.6 times more likely to have a positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS prevention than those who had a negative self-efficacy. Programs which target mass media strategy for prevention can leverage the television and internet. Stakeholders can target on interventions that can improve adolescent’s self-efficacy so as to achieve HIV prevention goals.
Keywords: Self-efficacy, Prevention of HIV/AIDS, Adolescents, Attitudes, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.