Breast cancer is prevalent and common across the globe.One in every nine women in developed countries and one in every 20 in less developed areas may have the risk of breast cancer.This study aimed to evaluate the role of Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNORs) stain in improving the efficacy of the fine needle aspiration (FNA) technique in the detection of cytological changes in breast lumps among Sudanese women.
This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in Khartoum state (Sudan), among Sudanese women who presented with breast lumps to governmental and private cytology clinics.
FNA samples were collected from each patient. Wet fixed smears were stained with AgNOR and air-dried smears with Pap staining techniques.
For the evaluation the numeric results (The mean and standard deviation (mAgNOR ± SD) of AgNOR dots in 100 tumor nuclei and the Proliferative Index (pAgNOR), the percentage of cells having 5 or more AgNOR dots per nucleus in 100 nuclei ). Pearson correlation coefficient (p-value) and ANOVA tests were used through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics 21) to compare the values observed in each cytological category and the values observed for counting 50 and 100 tumor nuclei.
The mean values and SD of AgNOR (mAgNOR) and proliferative Index (pAgNOR) were 3.66±2.8 and 2.22±2.1, respectively. On the other hand, ANOVA test showed a significant increase in the mean values of the malignant findings in both parameters. The correlation between cytological changes categories and the means of AgNOR (mAgNOR) showed a statistically significant test (P = 0.001). Also the correlation between cytological assessment categories and the means of proliferative Index (pAgNOR) showed a statistically significant test.
The estimate breast cellular proliferative activity by means of AgNORs per nucleus quantification and cytological atypia improve the accuracy of FNA in comparison with standard Pap stains.