While there exist numerous methods to identify binary phenotypes (i.e. COPD) using electronic health record (EHR) data, few exist to ascertain the timings of phenotype events (i.e. COPD onset or exacerbations). Estimating event times could enable more powerful use of EHR data for longitudinal risk modeling, including survival analysis. Here we introduce Semi-supervised Adaptive Markov Gaussian Embedding Process (SAMGEP), a semi-supervised machine learning algorithm to estimate phenotype event times using EHR data with limited observed labels, which require resource-intensive chart review to obtain. SAMGEP models latent phenotype states as a binary Markov process, and it employs an adaptive weighting strategy to map timestamped EHR features to an embedding function that it models as a state-dependent Gaussian process. SAMGEP’s feature weighting achieves meaningful feature selection, and its predictions significantly improve AUCs and F1 scores over existing approaches in diverse simulations and real-world settings. It is particularly adept at predicting cumulative risk and event counting process functions, and is robust to diverse generative model parameters. Moreover, it achieves high accuracy with few (50-100) labels, efficiently leveraging unlabeled EHR data to maximize information gain from costly-to-obtain event time labels. SAMGEP can be used to estimate accurate phenotype state functions for risk modeling research.