G-quadruplexes (G4s) are noncanonical structures that can form in the genomes of a range of organisms and are known to play various roles in cellular function. G4s can also form in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) because of their high guanine content, and these G4s may play roles in regulating gene expression, DNA replication, and genome stability. However, little is known regarding the evolution and dissemination of G4s in mitochondria. Here we analyzed the potential G4-forming sequences in mtDNA of 16 species from various families and demonstrated that the heavy strand of mtDNA of higher-order organisms contained higher levels of G4 regions than that of lower-order organisms. Analysis of the codons in the light strand revealed enrichment of guanine/cytosine-rich regions in higher eukaryotes and of adenine/thymidine-rich regions in lower-order organisms. Our study showed the diversity of G4s in species ranging from lower to higher orders. In particular, mammals such as humans, chimpanzees, and monkeys display a greater number of G4s than lower-order organisms. These potentially play a role in a range of cellular functions and assist in the evolution of higher organisms.