The CIP has been tested in several fields, but none of them have addressed the pharmaceutical area; this is while the consumer involvement can cause considerable challenges for policymakers of this domain. Therefore, the provision of a credible tool to measure involvement to pharmaceutical products is required. Considering this issue, this study was dedicated to assess the reliability, validity and fitness of the Persian version of CIP in the mentioned area.
The findings of the present study, confirm the good fitness of the scale developed by Laurent and Kapfere , after translation of the items from English into Persian and their refinement to adapt them to the pharmaceutical field. Content validity was also approved, based on the experts' opinions. However, when it came to the reliability and construct validity, several issues arose. These issues were not specific to the present study and have been reported in the previous researches applying CIP in some other fields. In the present research, deficiency of divergent validity was observed among importance, risk probability and risk importance, and also among importance and pleasure, if MSV, ASV and Fornell-Larcker get as the criteria to judge. However, HTMT values were all less than 0.9 and only in conservative situations some concerns may be raised regarding the discriminant validity of risk probability and risk importance. In previous studies, such as Laurent and Kappfer's research conducted in dresses, bras, washing machines, TV sets, vacuum cleaners, irons, champagne, oil, yoghurt, chocolate, shampoo, toothpaste, facial soap and detergent fields in 1985, overlap was observed between dimensions risk importance and risk probability but they believed that these dimensions are different theoretically and must be retained as independent facets . The factor analysis of the Consumer Involvement Questionnaire (CIP) showed that the concept of involvement has different dimensions and each of these dimensions carries some part of information and consumer involvement cannot be measured in one dimension. However, based on what was observed in terms of the convergent and divergent validity, further research and some changes are needed to fix problems related to these aspects.
Regarding the risk probability, it seems to the authors that, in the field of medicines, many people do not have accurate information about the difference between the products of the same medicine manufactured by various pharmaceutical companies. In a similar way, their mindset of risk probability is not very clear and robust.
Turning next to the risk importance dimension, it can be say that it is strongly influenced by the importance of medication in one's mind and life. Therefore, it is highly probable that this concept be in the correlation with the "importance" dimension. In addition, the importance of the producer stability differs depending the type of disease; in some illnesses, change in the medicine producer can have considerable impact on the treatment outcomes, while in some others, it is not important. In the case of the former diseases, it is not far from mind that the respondent perceived high levels of risk probability and risk importance. These issues can affect the covariance and correlation among these two dimensions. Besides this the first authors developing the CIP scale, i.e. Laurent and Kapfere, pointed out the closeness of these two concepts and explained that they are two sub-dimensions of the more general concept of perceived risk .
A similar situation was reported in the Gursoy and Gavcar’s study, conducted in 2003. This international research examined the CIP scale in the tourism field; its results supported the multidimensional construct of involvement. However, it did not reveal the exact factors discussed by Laurent and Kapferer; Gursoy and Gavcar elicited three dimensions from their data and suggested that the consumer involvement has three dimensions in leisure and tourism. In their study, importance and pleasure were overlapped and they concluded that, in leisure and tourism business, importance and pleasure are synonyms. In addition, they eliminated the sign dimension because its items had cross-loading with other constructs . The results of the present study were in align with Gursoy and Gavcar 's finding in terms of importance and pleasure correlation. Such a result is not odd in the field of medicines, because these products set in the concept of mandatory purchase and in a majority of cases, people have to buy them in unpleasant conditions. Consequently, pleasure has not true meaning in this field and is very close to the concept of importance.
Discussing the convergent validity and reliability problems found in the present study, it must be reminded that deficiencies in these aspects were also reported in previous literature, such as Gursoy and Gavcar’s study; where several items held factor loadings less than 0.5 and Cronbach's alpha was lower than 0.7 for risk probability and risk importance. Similar situation was observed in Madrigal et al’s study in 1992 that examined involvement with family vacations. They found only two strong dimensions including sign and importance/pleasure .