Presentatives in the middle of an utterance are also used to call the addressee’s attention to what is being communicated in the text. It is useful to look at the following examples to understand this point.
2.a. k’ormaata bahuu yoo barbaadd-Ø-e il-Ø-a
exam pass-2S-IMPV if want-2S-IMPV look-2S-IMP
If you want to pass the exam, see to it that you study hard.’(LIT. If you want to rise
b. falʔaann-i isii-n ɗab-d-Ø-e kunoo
spoon-NOM she-NOM miss-3FS-PV here-PRX
c. ‘ilm-i garii-n kunoo ka akkanaa-ti. (Showing the boy).
18.104.22.168 Final position
Presentatives in the final position of an utterance are used to call the addressee’s attention to what is being communicated in the text, and to keep track of the previous information. To better understand this let us see the following sentences.
3. a. kitaabn-i isin soyt’anii ɗabd-Ø-an siree-rra
book-NOM you search-2PL-CNV miss-PV-2PL bed-LOC
ʤir-Ø-a kunoo laal-Ø-aa. (Pointing to the book on the bed).
exist-3MS-IMPV here-PRX see-2PL-IMP.
‘The book that you searched and missed is on the bed, look here.’
b. odeeffannoo haarawa k’abaaccuun baayyee nama
information fresh having-VN very man
fayyad-Ø-a; kunoo c’ak’as-Ø-aa. (Pointing the radio speaking)
help-3MS-IMPV here-PRX listen-2PL-IMP.
‘Having fresh information is very helpful, listen here.’
c. huc’uu naa bit-i ʤet-t-Ø-e
cloth I-DAT buy-2S-IMP say-2S-PV
bit-Ø-e kunoa laal-Ø-i. (Showing the new cloth)
buy-1S-PV here see-2S-IMP.
‘I have bought the cloth that you told me to buy for you, look here.’
The presentative expression kunoo laalaa ‘here, look at it’ as in (3a) helps to direct the addressees’ attention to the entity pointed at, i.e., kitaaba sireerraa ‘the book on the table.’ In (3b) the expression kunoo ‘here it is’ directs the attention of the addressee to the referent pointed at by the speaker-the radio speaking. In (3c) yet the expression kunoo laali ‘here look at it’ directs the attention of the addressee to the referent offered by the speaker, huc’uu naa biti ʤette bite ‘I have bought the cloth that you told me to buy for you.’ In all of the usages in (3a-c) the presentative adverbs/expressions come at the utterance final position and help in making the addressee either direct his/her attention to the referent that the speaker pointed at, or they play an offerative function thereby presenting an entity to the addressee(s).
Both the proximal and distal demonstrative adverbs kunoo ‘here’ and kuuunnoo ‘over there’ respectively could occur at the sentence initial, medial and final positions have been used in the examples in (2a-c), and (3a-c) above. Some of these presentative demonstrative adverbs/expressions are also accompanied by pointing gestures to point to the location or direction of entities. In all of these syntactic positions however the presentatives do not integrate into the clause or utterance which precedes or comes after them.
1.4.2 Functions of presentative demonstratives
In this subsection we will have a look at the functions of presentative demonstratives in different discourse contexts. The exophoric (directive and offerative), and endophoric (anaphoric, discourse signal and cataphoric) functions of presentatives will be discussed.
22.214.171.124 Exophoric function
When presentative demonstratives are used as exophorics, they are used to point out or present entities that are found in the context of the communication situation between the speaker and the addressee. In this case, they are usually accompanied by a pointing gesture (Treis 2018:12). When pointing out or presenting an entity, the speaker directs the hearer’s attention to the entity. Through the use of a proximal, medial or distal presentatives depending on where the entity is located with respect to the deictic center, the speaker additionally specifies the approximate location of the entity. The proximal presentative demonstrative adverb kunooti ‘here it is’ is used when the presented entity is near the speaker, kuunnooti ‘there it is’ is used when the entity presented is away from both the speaker and hearer, and kuuunnooti ‘over there it is’ when the entity pointed out is very far from both the speaker and hearer. Offerative and directive functions are examples of the exophoric use of presentatives in Oromo.
126.96.36.199.1 Offerative function
As it has been stated earlier, the offerative function of presentative demonstratives is meant to draw the attention of the addressee towards something provided to her. Next, we will have a look at the data on this function of presentative demonstratives.
4. a. il-Ø-a kunoo ka ati
look-2S-IMP here-PRX POSS you
ʤett-Ø-e fid-Ø-e. (Pointing to the entity presented).
‘Look here, I have brought what you told me to.’
b. il-Ø-a kunoo-ti. (The speaker puts a bag in front of the listener).
‘Look, here it is’ (The speaker puts a bag in front of the listener).
c. hoo kunoo mallak’a kee akka
take-2S-IMP here-PRX money your as
‘Here is your money; take it and make it as you like.’
All of the above usages in (4a-c) show presentative deictics in which the speaker presents objects to the addressee. In (4a) the presentative expression ila kunoo ‘look here’ has been used before the utterance that contains a referent to be presented ka ati ʤette fidee ‘I brought what you said’ which has been accompanied by a hand pointing to draw the attention of addressee to the referent. In (4b) the presentative expression ila kunooti ‘look here it is’ attracts the addressees attention to the bag presented. In (4c) expression hoo kunoo ‘take here’ calls the addresse’s attention to referent presented mallaka ‘money.’ In all of the usages in (4a-c) the presentative expressions used all help in making the addressees to draw their attention to something to be presented to them, for their very usages triggers the addressees to anticipate something to be given to them.
188.8.131.52.2 Directive function
The directive function is aimed towards drawing the addressee’s attention to a referent (Fillmore 1982:47). In Oromo there are situations wherein speakers present to listeners not just physical objects but thoughts, ideas, jokes, or news about something. The purpose of such presentative expressions is therefore to draw the attention of the addressee(s) towards the idea, news, or information presented. This is the directive function of presentative deixis.
Let us have a look at the following sentences.
5. a. laal-Ø-i kunoo amma rakkoo-n ɗalat-t-Ø-e.
look-2S-IMP this-PRX now problem-NOM bear-3FS-PV.
‘Look here, now is a problem.’
b. ʤaartii-n kaleessa mana yaalaa fid-Ø-an
old lady-NOM yesterday house treatment-GEN take-3PL-PAS
sun duut-Ø-ee hooʔ-Ø-u.
that-NOM.S die-3FS-PPG take it-2S-IMPV.
‘Be informed that the old lady who had been taken to hospital yesterday died.’ (LIT. The
old lady who had been taken to hospital yesterday died;take it).
c. mootummaan haaroy-i-ni man-neen barumsaa
government-NOM new-EP-NOM house-PL education-GEN
hedduu iʤaar-Ø-uu hed-Ø-aa ɗagay-Ø-i.
many construct-3MS-IMPV want-3MS-PPG hear-2S-IMPV.
‘Be informed that the new government wants to construct many schools.’ (LIT. The
new government wants to construct many schools; hear it).
d. laal-Ø-i yeroo nu t’i-t’i-k’k’oo konkolaataa-n
look-2S-IMP when we little-RDP car-NOM
ganda keenna hin seenn-Ø-e.
village our NEG enter-3MS-PV.
‘Look, when we were little (ones) there was no car in our village.’
In each of the above sentences in (5a-d) the speakers is presenting an idea, thought, or news about things that they feel the addressee(s) has/have to be informed about, or have a knowledge of. In these sentences, through the use of presentative directives deictics like kunoo ‘here it is’, hooʔu ‘take it’, ɗagahi ‘hear it’, and laal ‘look’ the speaker directs the attention of his/her addressee(s) towards the information, idea, or news he/she is presenting.
184.108.40.206 Endophoric functions
The endophoric functions are presentative deictic expressions that are used for referring or pointing to entities that are found in the text. These are the discourse signal, anaphoric, and the cataphoric expressions which are used to refer to entities mentioned in the ongoing text. This will be discussed in the subsequent subsections.
220.127.116.11.1 Discourse signal functions
When presentative demonstratives are used as discourse signals they direct the addressee’s attention or focus on a noteworthy, surprising, extraordinarily positive or negative event described in the preceding or in the following discourse (Treis 2018:12). In this second function, the presentatives may or may not be accompanied by a pointing gesture. These demonstratives are used to keep track of the information flow of the text. They are used to order and organize the ‘the matrix of linguistic material within which the utterance has role, that is, the preceding and following parts of the discourse (Grenoble, L & Riley, M. 1996:824).
Presentative demonstrative adjectives/adverbs used in the sense of a discourse signal are not syntactically integrated into the sentences in which they occur. As it has been already indicated in subsection of morphosyntax of presentatives, these presentatives come either before the utterance to which the hearer is directed to pay his/her attention, or in the middle of it, or even sometimes in the end position of the utterance to which the addressee is asked to pay attention to.
Treis (2018:14) states that as a discourse signal the presentative often introduces noteworthy and unexpected consequences or results; the most appropriate English translations seem to be ‘Look!’, ‘(You) see!’, ‘Listen (here)!’, ‘Pay attention!’, or biblical contexts, ‘Behold!’, as in (30a-c) next.
6. a. il-Ø-a kunoo waan inn-i ʤeɗ-Ø-u c’ak’as-Ø-i.
look-2S-IMP here-PRX thing he-NOM say-3SM-IMPV listen-2S-IMP
‘Look here, listen to what he says.’ (LIT. Listen to what he says, look here).
b. il-Ø-a kunoo ta an-i ʤeɗ-Ø-e ɗuf-t- Ø-e.
look-2S-IMP here-PRX POSS I-NOM say-1S-PV come-3FS-PV’
‘look here, what I said became a reality.’
c. kunoo laal-Ø-i iʤoollee-n ɗuf-t-Ø-e.
here-PRX look-2S-IMP children-NOM come-FS-PV.
‘Look here, children came.’
The presentative expressions in (6a-c) have been used to introduce important or notable information to the addressee. In (6a) the expression ila kunoo ‘look here’ helps to direct the attention of the addressee to what is going to come in the discourse, i.e., waan inni ʤeɗu c’ak’asi ‘listen to what he says.’ In (6b) also the expression ila kuunno ‘look there’ directs the attention of the addressee to what is to come in the following discourse ta ani ʤeɗe ɗufte ‘what I said became a reality.’ In (6c) the expression kunoo ‘here’ helps the addressee to look at the children pointed out by the speaker in the following part of the discourse. Hence, as has been described here, the presentative adverbs/expressions used in the above utterances all have a discourse signal function as they help to direct the addressee(s) attention to something important to be mentioned in the discourse.
18.104.22.168.2 Anaphoric functions
Anaphoric presentative demonstrative adjectives/adverbs in Oromo are used as backward referring expressions in a text. This is the anaphoric function of presentative demonstratives. Here, the presentatives are used to refer to the entire text mentioned in the preceding part of the discourse, as in the following usages in (7a-c).
7. a. dargagg-oonn-i kunniin ɗibee kana-rraa
youngesters-PL.NOM these disease this-ABL
uf eeg-Ø-aa ʤennaan did-Ø-an-ii
self protect-2PL-IMP. say-1PL-PV refuse-3PL-CNV
feɗii isaan-ii ʤala deemanii
desire they-GEN under go-3PL-CNV
harʔa rakkoo keessa gal-Ø-an kunoo.
today problem inside enter-3PL-PV this-PRX.
‘These youngsters were told to protect themselves from this disease; they refused and went after their lust, and today they are in a problem-here (is it)!’
In (7a), the presentative demonstrative adjective kunoo ‘here (it is)’ that syntactically comes at the end of the utterance has been used as a discourse signal. In this case, it refers to the discourse that appeared before it.
b. gurbaa-n intala ʤaalat-Ø-e ʤaars-ota ergat-ee ʤaars-onn-i
boy-NOM girl love-3MS-PV elder-PL send-3MS-CNV elder-PL-NOM
gara keennaa dubbii ʤaars-ota isaan-ii waliin mariʔat-Ø-an
to our issue elder-PL they-GEN together discuss-3PL-IMPV
ʔacciin booda guyyaa-n hin goɗ-am-ee k’op’iin
there after day-NOM CLT arrange-3SM-PAS-CNV preparation
hin goɗ-am-ee intala akkasiin gurbaa-tti
CLT 3SM-PAS-CNV girl like that boy-LOC
‘The boy who loved the girl sent the elders to us; the elders of our side discussed the issue together with them; then after the day was arranged, preparations were made, and we married the girl to the boy-take it.
Again, in (7b) we have the presentative demonstrative expression hooʔu ‘take it’ coming after the end of the utterance and serving as a discourse signal. It refers to the preceding part of the discourse.
(Context: The old man asked the younger boy that he met on the road to whom he belonged. Then the younger boy told to him his full name upto his great grandfather. Upon hearing this, the old man said this in wonderment:
c. eeyyee! eeyyee! il-Ø-a kunoo amma warra kee beek-Ø-e.
yes! yes, see-2S-IMP here-PRX now family your know-1S-PV.
‘Yes, I have hereby known your family.’
In (7c) yet the presentative expression ila kunoo ‘look here’ has been used as a disourse signal which connects the utterance of the younger boy (his full name/his ancestry) with that of the old man. In this case, the discourse signal refers backwards to the earlier part of the context situation. Syntactically, the anaphoric presentative expressions appear, more often, at the end of the discourse and thereby help to refer back to the preceding part of the text.
22.214.171.124.3 Cataphoric functions
Cataphoric presentative demonstrative adjectives are used to refer to the upcoming information in the text. This is the cataphoric function of presentative demonstratives. Here the presentatives are used to refer to the following part of the text in relation to the discourse center, as in the following usages in (8a-c).
8. kunoo amma c’imt-e barreeffama kee sirriitti
here-PRX now clever-BE writing your correct
barreessi-t-Ø-e; sirriitti dubbif-t-Ø-e; haala gaarii-n
write-2S-PV correct read-2S-PV way good-INST
hubat-t-Ø-e, k’abt’ii baajjee gaarii-llee argat-t-Ø-e.
understand-2S-PV result very good-also get-2S-PV.
‘Here now, you are clever; you wrote correctly; you read correctly; you understood in a
good way ; also, you got a very good result.’
In (8) we have a presentative demonstrative expression kunoo amma ‘here now’ which comes at the start of the utterance to introduce the consequence of being clever. It serves as a cataphoric function in this example as it helps to stipulate the occurrence of a following text later in the discourse.
9. kuunnoo walɗab-n-Ø-e waan an-i
there-DST disagree-PV-1PL thing I-NOM
fid-ii koott-Ø-u ʤeɗ-Ø-e ɗiif-t-Ø-ee
bring-2S-CNV come-2S-IMP say-1S-PV leave-2S-CNV
‘There, we now disagree; why did you leave and come the thing that I told you to
bring with you.’
In (9) also, we once again attest the cataphoric function of the presentative demonstrative adverb kuunnoo ‘there’ coming in the beginning of the utterance to signal the following part of the text.
(Context: The children asked their mother where the burial place of their late father is. Their mother pointing where the burial place of their father uttering the following words:
10. il-Ø-a kuuunnoo bakka mukk-een ɗe-ɗɗeer-oon
see-2S-IMP far there-DST place tree-PL tall-RDP.PL
‘Look far there/afield, it is the place where the tall trees are visible.’
‘In (10), again the presentative demonstrative expression ila kuuunnoo ‘look there far’ by pointing to the burial place of their father to direct the attention of her children. In this case, it functions as a cataphoric discourse signal that is used to introduce something that is noteworthy. Syntactically, the cataphoric presentative demonstratives appear, more often, at the beginning of the discourse that follows them.