1. Güneralp, B. et al. Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050. PNAS 114, 8945–8950 (2017).
2. Kenworthy, J. R. Passenger Transport Energy Use in Ten Swedish Cities: Understanding the Differences through a Comparative Review. Energies 13, 3719 (2020).
3. Newman, P. W. G. Sustainability and cities: extending the metabolism model. Landscape and Urban Planning 44, 219–226 (1999).
4. Seto, K. C. et al. Human Settlements, Infrastructure and Spatial Planning. in Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. (eds. Edenhofer, O. et al.) 923–1000 (Cambride University Press, 2014).
5. Ayres, R. U. & Warr, B. The Economic Growth Engine: How Energy And Work Drive Material Prosperity. (Edward Elgar, 2009).
6. Hall, C. A. S. & Klitgaard, K. A. Energy and the Wealth of Nations. An Introduction to Biophysical Economics. (Springer, 2017).
7. Stern, D. I. The role of energy in economic growth. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1219, 26–51 (2011).
8. IPCC. Climate Change 2021, The Physical Science Basis. (WMO, UNEP, 2021).
9. IPCC. Global Warming of 1.5 °C. (WMO, UNEP, 2018).
10. Dietz, T., Shwom, R. L. & Whitley, C. T. Climate Change and Society. Annual Review of Sociology 46, 135–158 (2020).
11. Jorgenson, A. K. et al. Social science perspectives on drivers of and responses to global climate change. WIREs Climate Change 10, e554 (2019).
12. Liddle, B. Impact of population, age structure, and urbanization on carbon emissions/energy consumption: evidence from macro-level, cross-country analyses. Popul Environ 35, 286–304 (2014).
13. Ehrlich, P. R. & Holdren, J. P. Impact of Population Growth. Science 171, 1212–1217 (1971).
14. Jackson, T. & Victor, P. A. Unraveling the claims for (and against) green growth. Science 366, 950–951 (2019).
15. Vadén, T. et al. Decoupling for ecological sustainability: A categorisation and review of research literature. Environmental Science & Policy 112, 236–244 (2020).
16. Quéré, C. L. et al. Drivers of declining CO 2 emissions in 18 developed economies. Nat. Clim. Chang. 9, 213–217 (2019).
17. Haberl, H. et al. A systematic review of the evidence on decoupling of GDP, resource use and GHG emissions, part II: synthesizing the insights. Environ. Res. Lett. 15, 065003 (2020).
18. Shafiei, S. & Salim, R. A. Non-renewable and renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD countries: A comparative analysis. Energy Policy 66, 547–556 (2014).
19. Steinberger, J. K., Krausmann, F. & Eisenmenger, N. Global patterns of materials use: A socioeconomic and geophysical analysis. Ecological Economics 69, 1148–1158 (2010).
20. Parikh, J. & Shukla, V. Urbanization, energy use and greenhouse effects in economic development: Results from a cross-national study of developing countries. Global Environmental Change 5, 87–103 (1995).
21. Rahman, M. M. Do population density, economic growth, energy use and exports adversely affect environmental quality in Asian populous countries? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 77, 506–514 (2017).
22. Creutzig, F., Baiocchi, G., Bierkandt, R., Pichler, P.-P. & Seto, K. C. Global typology of urban energy use and potentials for an urbanization mitigation wedge. PNAS 112, 6283–6288 (2015).
23. Creutzig, F. How fuel prices determine public transport infrastructure, modal shares and urban form. Urban Climate 10, 63–76 (2014).
24. Newman, P. W. G. & Kenworthy, J. R. Transport and urban form in thirty‐two of the world’s principal cities. Transport Reviews 11, 249–272 (1991).
25. Pomponi, F., Saint, R., Arehart, J. H., Gharavi, N. & D’Amico, B. Decoupling density from tallness in analysing the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of cities. npj Urban Sustain 1, 33 (2021).
26. Haberl, H. et al. Contributions of sociometabolic research to sustainability science. Nature Sustainability 2, 173–184 (2019).
27. Haberl, H. et al. High-Resolution Maps of Material Stocks in Buildings and Infrastructures in Austria and Germany. Environ. Sci. Technol. 55, 3368–3379 (2021).
28. Kennedy, C. The energy embodied in the first and second industrial revolutions. Journal of Industrial Ecology 24, 887–898 (2020).
29. Krausmann, F. et al. Global socioeconomic material stocks rise 23-fold over the 20th century and require half of annual resource use. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 114, 1880–1885 (2017).
30. Lamb, W. F. et al. A review of trends and drivers of greenhouse gas emissions by sector from 1990 to 2018. Environ. Res. Lett. 16, 073005 (2021).
31. Grubler, A. et al. A low energy demand scenario for meeting the 1.5 °C target and sustainable development goals without negative emission technologies. Nature Energy 3, 515 (2018).
32. Sims, R. et al. Transport. in Climate Change 2014, Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds. Edenhofer, O., Pichs-Madruga, R. & Sokona, Y.) 599–670 (Cambride University Press, 2014).
33. Lim, J., Kang, M. & Jung, C. Effect of national-level spatial distribution of cities on national transport CO2 emissions. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 77, 162–173 (2019).
34. Krausmann, F., Weisz, H. & Eisenmenger, N. Transitions in Socio-Metabolic Regimes Through Human History. in Social Ecology: Society-Nature Relations Across Time And Space (eds. Haberl, H., Fischer-Kowalski, M., Krausmann, F. & Winiwarter, V.) 63–92 (Springer, 2016).
35. Cao, Z. et al. The sponge effect and carbon emission mitigation potentials of the global cement cycle. Nature Communications 11, 3777 (2020).
36. Krausmann, F., Wiedenhofer, D. & Haberl, H. Growing stocks of buildings, infrastructures and machinery as key challenge for compliance with climate targets. Global Environmental Change 61, 102034 (2020).
37. Watari, T. et al. Global Metal Use Targets in Line with Climate Goals. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2020) doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c02471.
38. Vogel, J., Steinberger, J. K., O’Neill, D. W., Lamb, W. F. & Krishnakumar, J. Socio-economic conditions for satisfying human needs at low energy use: An international analysis of social provisioning. Global Environmental Change 69, 102287 (2021).