Ethics approval and consent to participate: All participating sites received approval from their institutional review boards for data collection with a waiver of informed consent (see acknowledgements section below for list of participating sites).
Consent for publication: Not applicable
Availability of data and materials: The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request and conditional on the approval from the Critical Illness Outcomes Study Publication Committee.
Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions: MLM contributed to the study design, performed data analysis, and drafted the manuscript. CMQ and AKB participated in study design and were major contributors in writing the manuscript. APP designed and led the study, analyzed and interpreted the data, edited and finalized the manuscript, and takes responsibility for all aspects of the work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors thank Michael E. Wilson, for thoughtful comments about study design and manuscript critiques. We acknowledge the members of the United States Critical Ilness and Injury Trials Group – Critical Illness Outcomes Study, listed below in alphabetical order by state.
1 ARIZONA: University of Arizona Medical Center, Tucson, AZ, Terence O'Keeffe (PI), Coy Collins; Laurel Rokowski; CALIFORNIA: LA County-University of South California Hospital, Los Angeles, CA, Janice Liebler (PI), Ali Ahoui, Anahita Nersiseyan, Usman Shah, Hidenobu Shigemitsu, Nanditha Thaiyananthan; Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, Joe Hsu (PI), Lawrence Ho; VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Juliana Barr (PI); CONNECTICUT: Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT; David Kaufman (PI) Yale University Hospital, New Haven, CT, Jonathan M. Siner (PI), Mark D. Siegel; GEORGIA: Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA, Greg S. Martin (PI), Craig Coopersmith, Micah Fisher,David Gutteridge, Mona Brown, SangLee, Apryl Smith; Emory University Midtown Hospital, Atlanta, GA, Greg S. Martin (PI), Kenneth Leeper, Mona Brown; Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, GA,Greg S. Martin (PI), Sushma Cribbs, Annette Esper, Mona Brown, David Gutteridge;Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA, Greg S. Martin (PI), Craig Coopersmith, Sushma, Cribbs, Annette Esper, Micah Fisher, David Gutteridge, Olufunmilayo Dosunmu; KANSAS: VA Medical Ctr., Wichita, Ka, Zubair Hassan(PI) Co-PI: Jing Liu Bart Ridder; ILLINOIS: Northwest Community Hospital, Arlington Heights, IL,Melanie Atkinson (PI), Aimee Draftz, Jackie Durgin, Yelena Rikhman, Jessica Scheckel, Mary Walthers; Saint Francis Hospital, Evanston, IL, Gerald Luger (PI), Carol Downer; University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, IL, Ruxana T. Sadikot (PI), Kamran Javaid, Daniel Rodgers, Vibhu Sharma; MARYLAND: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, Jon Sevransky (PI), William Checkley, Romer Geocadin, David Murphy, Dale Needham, Adam Sapirstein, Steven Schwartz, Glenn Whitman, Brad Winters, Addisu Workneh, Sammy Zakaria; St. Agnes Hospital, Baltimore, MD, Anthony Martinez (PI), Fran Keith; University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, Steven Johnson (PI), Dan Herr, Giora Netzer Carl Shanholtz, Arabela Sampaio, JenniferTitus; NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD; Michael Eberlein Suburban Hospital Bethesda, Bethesda, MD, Leo Rotello (PI), Jennifer Anderson; MASSACHUSETTS: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, Sajid Shahul (PI), Valerie Banner-Goodspeed, Michael Howell, Sabina Hunziker, VictoriaNielsen, Jennifer Stevens, Daniel Talmor; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, Namrata Patil (PI), LisaChin, Michael Myers, Stanthia Ryan; MICHIGAN: St Joseph Mercy Health System, Ann Arbor Michigan Joseph Bander, (PI) University of Michigan Health Systems, Ann Arbor, MI, Pauline Park (PI), James Blum, VivekArora, Kristin Brierley, Jessica DeVito, Julie Harris, Elizabeth Jewell, Deborah Rohner; Kathleen To; MINNESOTA: Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, MN, Brian W. Pickering (PI), Jyothsna Giru, Rahul Kashyap, Naman Trivedi; Mayo Clinic Rochester; MISSOURI: University ofMissouri-Columbia Hospital, Columbia, Missouri; KansasCity VA Hospital, Kansas City, MO, Timothy Dwyer (PI),Kyle Brownback; NEW JERSEY: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, Steven Chang(PI), Zaza Cohen, Frank Italiano, Zeeshan Kahn, Amee Patrawalla; NEW MEXICO: Presbyterian Healthcare Services, Albequerque, NM, Denise Gonzales (PI), Paul Campbell; NEW YORK: Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, David Chong (PI), Matthew Baldwin,Luke Benvenuto, Natalie Yip; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Steven M Pastores, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, Anthony Pietropaoli(PI), Kathleen Falkner, Timothy Bouck, Ann Marie Mattingly; NORTH CAROLINA: Wake Forest University Health Science, Durham, NC, Peter E. Morris (PI), Lori S. Flores; East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, Abid Butt (PI), Mark Mazer, Kelly Jernigan; Cone Health, Greensboro,NC, Patrick Wright (PI), Sarah Groce, Jeanette McLean, Arshena Overton; OHIO: Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, Jorge A. Guzman (PI), Mohammed Abou El Fadl,Tonya Frederick, Gustavo-Cumbo-Nacheli, John Komara; The Ohio State Wexner University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, James M. O'Brien (PI), Naeem Ali, Matthew Exline; PENNSYLVANIA: Eastern Regional Medical Center Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Philadelphia, PA, Jeffrey Hoag (PI), Daniela Albu, Pat McLaughlin; Hahnemann University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA Jeffrey Hoag (PI); Emil Abramian, John Zeibeq.; Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, Meeta Prasad (PI), Scott Zuick; TENNESSEE: Meharry Medical College Hospital, Nashville, TN, Richard D. Fremont (PI), Chinenye O. Emuwa, Victor C. Nwazue, Olufemi S. Owolabi; Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, Bryan Cotton (PI), George Hart, Judy Jenkins; Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, Todd W. Rice (PI), Timothy D. Girard, Margaret Hays, Susan Mogan; TEXAS: University of Texas-Houston Medical Center, Houston, TX; Imo P. Aisiku (PI) UTAH: Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah, Samuel Brown (PI), Colin Grissom, Russ Miller III, Anita Austin, Heather Gallo, Naresh Kumar, David Murphy; VIRGINIA: Inova Health Systems, Falls Church, VA, Maryann Putman (PI), Joanne Ondrush.