Modification of bone turnover has been reported following selective alveolar decortication but the molecular signals in the periodontal ligament space (PDL) remain unanswered. The objective of this study was to understand how selective alveolar decortication affects the biological reactions in the periodontal ligament.
Selective alveolar decortication in wild-type mice (n=25) was performed on mandibular right buccal cortical plate adjacent to the mandibular right third molar and euthanized at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. We also performed selective alveolar decortication in Lrp5ACT (n=5) mice and Ad-Dkk1 treated mice (n=5), and euthanized at 7 days. The periodontium around the mandibular third molars were examined using histology, immunohistochemical analyses for osteogenic markers, TGF-β, RANKL, TRAP and alkaline phosphatase activity.
The expression of osteogenic markers in the wild-type PDL was maintained during healing time period after selective alveolar decortication. Increased osteoclast activity in the wild-type mice was observed at 3 and 7 days after selective alveolar decortication. The PDL in Lrp5G171V (Lrp5ACT) mice and adenovirus Dkk1 (Ad-Dkk1) treated mice also showed insignificant changes in the expression of osteogenic markers following selective alveolar decortication. In Lrp5ACT mice where there was a reduction of bone resorption, selective alveolar decortication caused a dramatic increase in osteoclast activity.
Selective alveolar decortication affects only bone turnover, but not the expression of osteogenic markers in the PDL.