Aiming at the intelligent needs of psychological state assessment of university students, the text information-based psychological problem identification approach is investigated in the paper. This approach uses the text of student forums within universities as the database and introduces the convolutional neural network (CNN) model in deep learning, which contains a convolutional layer, a pooling layer, and a fully connected layer. After the convolution is completed, the convolution result is de-linearized by the activation function, and then pooling is performed to improve the fitting ability of the network for nonlinearities. For data processing, behavioral features attribute features, content features, and social relationship features are extracted from text information as the input of the CNN by using the decision tree. The psychological lexicon of expertise (LIWC) is used to enhance the efficiency of text word frequency statistics when performing text content extraction. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, simulations are performed in the open dataset of CLPsyh2017 ReachOut Forum, and the FastText method is used as a comparison. The results show that the CNN model achieves an accuracy of 0.71 in the full-sample domain, which is significantly higher than that of the FastText model at 0.64. In the early warning evaluation of mental states, the CNN performance is better than that of FastText.