Infection-neutralizing antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 vaccination are an essential part of antiviral immunity. This immune protection is challenged by the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) with immune escape properties, such as omicron (B.1.1.529) that is rapidly spreading worldwide. Here, we report neutralizing antibody dynamics in a longitudinal cohort of COVID-19 convalescent and naïve individuals vaccinated with mRNA BNT162b2 by quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike antibodies and determining their avidity and neutralization capacity. A superior infection-neutralizing capacity against all VoCs, including omicron, developed by either two vaccinations of convalescents, or a third vaccination or breakthrough infection of twice-vaccinated naïve individuals. These three consecutive spike antigen exposures resulted in an increasing neutralization capacity per anti-spike antibody unit and were paralleled by stepwise increases in antibody avidity. In conclusion, an infection/vaccination-induced hybrid immunity or a triple immunization induces high-quality antibodies resulting in superior neutralization capacity against VoCs, including omicron.