Background: The Paris System (TPS) for reporting urinary cytology differs from conventional systems (CS) in that it focuses on the diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). This study investigated the impact of TPS implementation on the diagnostic accuracy of HGUC by comparing it with CS.
Methods: A total of 649 patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) between January 2009 and December 2020 were included in this study. Our institution adopted TPS to report urinary cytology in February 2020. The diagnostic accuracy of HGUC in preoperative urinary cytology was compared with the presence or absence of HGUC in resected specimens of TURBT before and after TPS implementation.
Results: After implementing TPS in urinary cytology, 89 patients were reviewed and compared with 560 patients whose urinary cytology was diagnosed by CS. TPS and CS for detecting HGUC had 56.0% and 58.2% sensitivity, 97.8% and 91.2% specificity, and 93.3% and 87.9% positive predictive values, respectively. There were no significant differences between TPS and CS in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for HGUC (P=0.83, 0.21, 1.00). On the other hand, the negative predictive value for HGUC using TPS was 80.0%, which was significantly higher than that of CS (66.4%, P=0.04) The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that not using TPS was one of the independent predictive factors associated with false-negative results for HGUC (odds ratio, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–4.77; P=0.03).
Conclusion: In instances where urinary cytology is reported as negative for HGUC by TPS, there is a low probability of HGUC, indicating that TPS has a potential diagnostic benefit.