Cobalt (Co) ion is a common heavy metal ion and the main metal ion in nuclear wastewater. However, the study on the absorption for Co(II) is not sufficient. Herein, a novel ES-layered double hydroxide (LDH) is prepared by intercalated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) in a magnesium, iron pristine LDH, which is subsequently used for [email protected] cellulose (CMC) composite aerogel. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectra and thermogravimetric analysis shows successfully preparation of intercalated LDH. The pore morphology, specific surface area and pore size distribution of the composite aerogels are characterized by scanning electron microscope and Nitrogen-BET curves. The significantly improved adsorption capacity, adsorption kinetics and isotherms the absorbents on Co(II) are systematically revealed. This study thus provides an important understanding and path for dealing with the threat of Co(II).