Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) is an important infectious disease encountered in huge number in this recent post-covid 19 era. An alteration in defence immune system during covid-19 illness, in the presence of uncontrolled hyperglycaemia has led to the new epidemic of ROCM especially in developing nations like India.
This case series of thirteen patients illustrates the various clinical presentation, laboratorical parameters, imaging features and outcome of patients of ROCM admitted in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India.
In our case series, a total of 13 newly diagnosed cases of Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis were studied. History of covid-19 illness was observed in 7 cases (53.8%), use of steroid during Covid-19 illness was seen in 5 cases (38.5%), oxygen therapy was given in 4 cases (30.8%). Co-morbid state in the form of diabetes mellitus was present in 12 cases (92.3%) with mean duration 16.69 months with an important finding of 6 cases (46.2%) having new-onset diabetes; hypertension in present in 3 cases (23.1%). Magnetic resonance imaging of paranasal sinuses showed involvement of multiple sinuses in all the 13 cases(100%), including maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses, with frontal in 12 cases (92.3%), sphenoidal in 11 cases (84.6%), symmetric in 9 cases (69.2%), mastoiditis in 4 cases (30.8%), maxillary space involvement in 4 cases (30.8%), palatal involvement in 1 case (7.7%). Multi-speciality approach treatment was given in the liposomal amphotericin B therapy in all the patients along with thorough endo-nasal debridement done in all cases, transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin B in 6 cases (46.2%) with exenteration done in 7 patients (53.9%). At 3 months of follow-up, there was substantial clinical improvement in all the cases.
There should be definite emphasis on high suspicion of mucor clinically for early diagnosis and aggressive management at initial state of diagnosis for better outcome. The need for sustained proper glycemic control during covid 19 era along with judicious use of steroid and public awareness for early symptoms and manifestations of mucor can curb the magnitude of such potentially opportunistic epidemic to a substantial rate. The longer the infection remains undetected, the greater the devastation ROCM can impose, of which blindness is an important hazard.