Securing the higher yield plays as essential role in improvement of sweet pepper cultivars. In this study, the significant differences were founded for most evaluated characters such as fruit length, fruit width, fruit thickness and fruit volume, fruit fresh and dry weight, fruit number per plant, lobes number per fruit and average yield per plant. Significant differences between bell pepper or hot pepper genotypes were also observed by other researchers (Naresh et al., 2016; Devi et al., 2018; Aiswarya et al., 2020). Naresh et al. (2016) reported the significant differences for all traits according to ANOVA analysis in chilli pepper. In addition, analysis of variance showed the significant differences in bell pepper for all traits by Devi et al. (2018).
The parents with good performance may not always be able to pass on their superior traits to the hybrids or the next generation, hence, combining ability studies are required (Kadambavanasundaram, 1980). Combining ability analysis manifested high and significant effects of GCA and SCA for the most studied characters. General combining ability (GCA) is an average performance of a line in the crosses that is controlled by additive gene action and is fixable, although specific combining ability (SCA) is the parental lines performance in a specific cross combination, that is non fixable due to non-additive gene action (Sprague and Tatum, 1942; Rukundo et al., 2017). Furthermore, the low narrow-sense heritability indicates a lack of relative influence of selection on superior offspring production, and therefore requires large populations, offspring test and complicated statistical methods to identify suitable genotypes (Taleei and Noormohamadi, 1994). We founded significant differences in the GCA and SCA variances for most studied traits that demonstrates the effect of both additive and non-additive gene actions in hybrid performance. In addition, according to Table 5, heritability was small for most of traits such as average yield per plant, fruit fresh weight and fruit dry weight, which have also been reported by other researchers (Hasanuzzaman et al., 2012; Bhutia et al., 2015; Aiswarya et al., 2020). The significant SCA effects was reported by Das et al., (2020) in five crosses for fruit yield per plant, PDI of downy mildew, total sugar content, number of fruit per plant, fruit diameter, days to first female flower appearance, and vine length.
High dominance variance compared to additive variance for days to flowering, days to fruit set, fruit fresh weight, fruit length and fruit width provides an appropriate genetic potential for heterosis breeding in sweet pepper because, the optimal use of heterosis requires the dominance effects (Falconer and Mackay, 1996). The high heterotic effect over standard parent was reported by Nimitha et al., (2018) for fruit yield per plant and number of fruits per plant in cucumber that can be used in commercial cultivation. Manggoel et al., (2021) reported the significant diversity between the cucumber genotypes studied. The findings from this study showed the priority of dominant gene effects over additive gene effects for the genetic control of vine length and number of leaves per plant (Manggoel et al., 2021).
In opposite, high additive gene action was obtained for the mean fruit mass and fruit length of sweet pepper (Yadahalli et al., 2017; Chagas et al., 2019).