1. Bray, F. et al. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin 68, 394-424, https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21492 (2018).
2. Van Cutsem, E. et al. ESMO consensus guidelines for the management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ann Oncol 27, 1386-1422, https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdw235 (2016).
3. Carlomagno, C. et al. Multiple treatment lines and prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Metastasis Rev 38, 307-313, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10555-018-9748-7 (2019).
4. Mayer, R. J. et al. Randomized trial of TAS-102 for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 372, 1909-1919, https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1414325 (2015).
5. Xu, J. et al. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) monotherapy in Asian patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer: the TERRA study. J Clin Oncol 36, 350-358, https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.74.3245 (2018).
6. Yoshino, T. et al. TAS-102 monotherapy for pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol 13, 993-1001, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70345-5 (2012).
7. Tabernero, J. et al. Effect of trifluridine/tipiracil in patients treated in RECOURSE by prognostic factors at baseline: an exploratory analysis. ESMO Open 5, e000752, https://doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2020-000752 (2020).
8. Ishizaki, T. et al. Prospective multicenter phase II study of biweekly TAS-102 and bevacizumab for metastatic colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res 41, 2157-2163, https://doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14988 (2021).
9. Kuboki, Y. et al. TAS-102 plus bevacizumab for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard therapies (C-TASK FORCE): an investigator-initiated, open-label, single-arm, multicentre, phase 1/2 study. Lancet Oncol 18, 1172-1181, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30425-4 (2017).
10. Pfeiffer, P. et al. TAS-102 with or without bevacizumab in patients with chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer: an investigator-initiated, open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol 21, 412-420, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30827-7 (2020).
11. Satake, H. et al. Phase Ib/II study of biweekly TAS-102 in combination with bevacizumab for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard therapies (BiTS Study). Oncologist 25, e1855-e1863, https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0643 (2020).
12. Takahashi, T. et al. Phase II study of trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab by RAS mutation status in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard therapies: JFMC51-1702-C7. ESMO Open 6, 100093, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esmoop.2021.100093 (2021).
13. Yoshida, Y. et al. Combination of TAS-102 and bevacizumab as third-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: TAS-CC3 study. Int J Clin Oncol 26, 111-117, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10147-020-01794-8 (2021).
14. Chida, K. et al. Efficacy and safety of trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab and trifluridine/tipiracil or regorafenib monotherapy for chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective study. Ther Adv Med Oncol 13, 17588359211009143, https://doi.org/10.1177/17588359211009143 (2021).
15. Fujii, H. et al. Bevacizumab in combination with TAS-102 improves clinical outcomes in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective study. Oncologist 25, e469-e476, https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0541 (2020).
16. Kotani, D. et al. Retrospective cohort study of trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) plus bevacizumab versus trifluridine/tipiracil monotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer 19, 1253, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-6475-6 (2019).
17. Fernández Montes, A. et al. Prediction of survival in patients with advanced, refractory colorectal cancer in treatment with trifluridine/tipiracil: real-world vs clinical trial data. Sci Rep 11, 14321, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93732-5 (2021).
18. Yang, L. et al. Comparisons of metastatic patterns of colorectal cancer among patients by age group: a population-based study. Aging 10, 4107-4119, https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.101700 (2018).
19. Wang, J. et al. Metastatic patterns and survival outcomes in patients with stage IV colon cancer: A population-based analysis. Cancer Med 9, 361-373, https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2673 (2020).
20. Matsuhashi, N. et al. Combination chemotherapy with TAS-102 plus bevacizumab in salvage-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: a single-center, retrospective study examining the prognostic value of the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score in salvage-line therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer. Mol Clin Oncol 11, 390-396, https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2019.1899 (2019).
21. Kuramochi, H. et al. The pre-treatment lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio predicts efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer treated with TAS-102 and bevacizumab. Anticancer Res 41, 3131-3137, https://doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.15098 (2021).
22. Kasi, P. M. et al. Chemotherapy induced neutropenia at 1-month mark is a predictor of overall survival in patients receiving TAS-102 for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a cohort study. BMC Cancer 16, 467, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-016-2491-y (2016).
23. Nose, Y. et al. Neutropenia is an indicator of outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with FTD/TPI plus bevacizumab: a retrospective study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 86, 427-433, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04129-6 (2020).
24. Yoshino, T. et al. Neutropenia and survival outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with trifluridine/tipiracil in the RECOURSE and J003 trials. Ann Oncol 31, 88-95, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annonc.2019.10.005 (2020).
25. Tabernero, J. et al. Trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab for third-line management of metastatic colorectal cancer: SUNLIGHT study design. Future Oncol 17, 1977-1985, https://doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-1238 (2021).