The SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) omicron (B1.1.529) is associated with high infectivity and efficient evasion from humoral immunity induced by previous infection or vaccination. In omicron-infected individuals who have been vaccinated or infected before, severe disease seems to be relatively infrequent pointing towards protection by previously primed SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells that cross-recognize omicron. By performing a comprehensive in-depth comparison of the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell epitope repertoire after natural infection versus after mRNA vaccination, we here demonstrate that spike-derived epitopes are not dominantly targeted in convalescents compared to non-spike epitopes. In vaccinees, however, we detected a broader spike-specific T cell response compared to convalescents reflected by a more diverse repertoire of dominantly targeted spike-specific T cell epitopes. Booster mRNA vaccination induced a broader spike-specific T cell response in convalescents but not in vaccinees with complete initial vaccination. In convalescents and vaccinees, the targeted T cell epitopes are broadly conserved between ancestral and omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants. Hence, our data emphasize the relevance of mRNA vaccine-induced spike-specific CD8+ T cell responses in combating emerging SARS-CoV-2 VOC including omicron and support the benefit of also boosting convalescent individuals with mRNA vaccines.