Based on data from 172 participants in this research, table 1 shows the mean length of treatment (days) was 15.17 ± 8, while the mean length of the gap from baseline to interview (days) was 109.22 ± 69.71. Out of four quality of life domains, the lowest mean score was identified in the physical domain with 69.31 ± 12.31, while the highest score was indicated at the social domain with the mean of 78.29 ± 16.08. The mean score of the psychological and the environmental domain were 74.89 ± 11.70 and 73.60 ± 13.30, respectively.
Table 2 describes the demographic characteristics of participants in this research. The proportion of males (48.3%) and females (51.7%) in this research tended to be equal. The majority of participants were aged 18-39 years (58,.1%), married or living with partners (66.9%), and working in the private sector (55.2%). Out of 172 participants, only 20 (11.6%) used respiratory aids during their COVID-19 treatment. Among all participants, almost one-third (30.2%) experienced long-haul symptoms of COVID symptoms, with 23.8% were having one symptom, and 6.4% were having two or more symptoms.
Further information on long-haul COVID are seen in Table 3. From eleven (11) symptoms that were collected, most of the participants experienced fatigue (16.3%), chest pain (7%), coughing (4.1%), breathing trouble (2.9%), as well as digestive disorder and headache (2.3%). There were one to two participants who experienced other symptoms such as ageusia, anosmia, memory loss, nausea, and joint pain.
Table 4 presents a comparison of the average scores for each quality of life domain according to socio-demography, treatment history, and having Long-Haul COVID symptoms. The Comparison of the average of scores domains in Quality of life can be described that there was a difference in the average score of the social domain male higher rather than female groups (p-value 0.03). In the 18-39 year age group, the average psychological domain score was higher than the 40-year-old age group or older (p-valu0.03). On the marital status of the participants, those who were married or living with a partner had a higher average psychological domain score than those from the single or divorced group (p-value 0.007). On the variable duration of treatment, there was no significant difference in the average in all domains of Quality of Life. However, regarding the use of breathing during COVID-19 treatment, the two Quality of Life domains (Psychological and Environmental) have a significant average difference with p-values of 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The other variables were not proven to be significant.
In Table 5, the Quality of Life variable was categorized into two categories (good and poor), as the scores were not normally distributed. Table 5 shows female participants, those aged 40 years or more, divorced/single participants, and unemployed participants tend to have a poorer quality of life in the physical domain. People with two or more symptoms of Long-Haul COVID also tended to have a poor quality of life in the physical domain compared to those without long-haul symptoms (OR=2.54, 95% CI = 0.68 - 9.46).
In the psychological domain, participants aged 40 years or more and participants with 14 or more days of treatment were two-fold more at risk to experience poor quality of life compared to their counterparts. Participants with two or more Long-Haul COVID symptoms also tended to have a higher risk for poorer quality of health in the psychological domain, with an odds ratio of 2.44 (95% CI = 0.46 - 12.89), compared to those who showed no symptoms.
In the social domain, people with one Long-Haul COVID symptoms have a higher risk, by almost two times, compared to those with no symptoms (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 0.79 - 4.92). In contradictory, Long-Haul COVID symptoms tended to be protective against the poor quality of life compared to those with no symptoms, in terms of the environmental domain. Thus, these initial results need to be analyzed further using multivariate analysis, as seen in Table 6. Multivariate analysis with four models was presented in this research. In which, each model has one dependent variable from each domain of the Quality of Life.
After adjusted with other variables, people with Long-Haul COVID tend to be at a greater risk to have a poor quality of life in the physical domain, psychological domain, and social domain with an odds ratio of 1.93 (95% CI = 0.88 - 4.23), 2.62 (95% CI = 0.96 - 7.14), and 2.09 (95% CI = 0.85 - 5.12), respectively. With an odd ratio of 0.99, the effect of Long-Haul COVID symptoms could not be concluded in the environmental domain.