Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. ) seeds are highly sensitive to the environmental conditions experienced in storage. The objectives of this study were to identify QTLs for soybean seed storability by evaluating seed viability and seed vigor and investigating candidate genes for these traits in detected QTL regions. These objectives will aid in developing soybean cultivars with a high capacity for storability. The seeds of 109 and 90 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Misuzudaizu and Moshidou Gong 503 in 2010 and 2019, respectively, were used to evaluate seed viability by a germination test and seed vigor by an accelerated aging test, after storage under two temperature conditions (25 °C and 35 °C) for six months. Seed viability and seed vigor of Moshidou Gong 503 were higher than those of Misuzudaizu in both temperature conditions. The average seed viability and seed vigor of RILs decreased when stored at the higher temperature. A total of five QTLs were found for the two traits, seed viability and seed vigor, located in chromosomes A2, C2, and D1b. The Misuzudaizu alleles decreased seed viability and seed vigor at all detected QTLs. Most QTLs in this study were found near loci controlling seed viability, maturity, germination, seed hardness, and seed surface micromorphology, indicating that seed storability is related to these traits. In addition, two new QTLs were found that are associated with seed storability.