During the study period, from March 1 to December 31, 2020; a total of 1.348 patients were recorded: 86 pregnant women infected by COVID 19 and 1.262 non-infected.
Demographic features and clinical characteristics of all patients are shown in Table 1.
The mean maternal age in non-infected group was 31.5 years (26-36) and in infected group was 30 years (28.3-31.2). Secondly, regarding ethnicity, among infected women group, 29 patients were from Spain 29 (34.5 %) while 55 (65.5 %) were from outside of our country. In the third place, about parity in the infected group there was 48.3 % nulliparous and 51.7 % of multiparous and in the non-infected group, there was 44.4 % of nulliparous and 55.6 % multiparous.
In infected group there was 4.64 % (4 cases) thyroid disfunction, 1.16 % (1 case) pulmonary comorbidities, 2.32 % (2 cases) hematologic comorbidities, 10.47 % (9 cases) obesity, 4.65 % (4 cases) hypertension disease and 5.81 % (5 cases) pregestacional diabetes; and in non-infected group there was 0.95 % (12) tyroid disfunction, 0.39 % (5 cases) pulmonary comorbidites, 0.85 % (13 cases) hematologic comorbidites, 6.34 % (80 cases) obesity, 1.58 % (22 cases) hypertension disease and 1.58 % (20 cases) pregestacional diabetes.
Of the 86 positive pregnant women during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy or at delivery, 57 % (49) were symptomatic while 43 % (37) were asymptomatic.
Symptomatic pregnant women were classified into three groups: mild 80.2% (69), moderate 11.6% (10) and severe 8.1% (7) being this last group of those pregnant women complicated with pneumonia.
Clinical manifestations in infected women occurred in 56.9 % being ageusia the most frequent symptom present in 100 % of cases, followed in second place by fever with 36 %. Less frequent was headache (16.3%) and myalgias (11.6%). Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 38 weeks (36.1-37.8) and the mean duration of COVID 19 infection was 15 days (15.6-17.7). These characteristics of infected pregnant women are shown in Table 2.
Obstetric and neonatal outcomes in SARS-COV-2 infected pregnant women are shown in Table 3.
Regarding comorbidities 9.29% (8) in infected group were obese while only 5.9% (73 patients) in non-infected group; 4.6% (4) of infected women had chronic hypertension versus 1% (13) of non-infected group; and 4.65% (4) had pregestational diabetes among infected women versus 0.9% (11) in non-infected group.
We did not observe any complications such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes or fetal growth restriction in infected group. Nevertheless, in non-infected group, we found gestational diabetes in 1.1% (14) and fetal growth restriction in 1.01% (13).
About the way of labor in infected group, 83.3% of the deliveries were vaginal deliveries (59 unassisted delivery, 11 instrumental delivery) and 16.7 % were by cesarean section (14). On the other hand, in non-infected group, we found 77.9% of vaginal deliveries (863 unassisted delivery, 120 instrumental delivery) and 21.8% of cesarean section (274).
Gestational age (GA) at delivery ranged from 38.8 to 39.6 weeks with a mean GA 40 weeks in infected pregnant women while GA at delivery in the non-infected group ranged from 39 to 41 with a mean GA 40 weeks. (p 0.0837).
There was 1 case of antepartum fetal death at term of pregnancy in the group of uninfected women and none in the group of infected women.
As for the neonates ,86 neonates from infected pregnant women were delivered during the study period. In infected group birth weight ranged from 3152 to 3349 g with a mean weight of 3210 g. while in non-infected group mean weight was 3240 g (2970-3540) (p=0.8597). Apgar score in infected group at the 5th minute was 9.64 and in control group was 9.71 (p=0.275). 8 neonates (9.5 %) were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in infected group and 15 (1.2 %) neonates were admitted to the NICU in non-infected group. Regarding the result of the umbilical artery pH mean, in infected group was 7.30 (7.27-7.30) and in non-innfected group was 7.29 (7.20-7.30) (p= 0.7451).