In order to control and prevent cancer, it is crucial to collect and generate cancer statistics on a population-based cancer registry system . Cancer registration data is widely used in cancer control and decision-making as well as scientific research . Public health and cancer control greatly rely on a good understanding of the disease burden in the population. Reliable estimates of the disease burden provides a comprehensive picture of how the impact of cancer varies with geographic regions and populations . Population-based cancer registries have been operating in China for about 60 years. Their roles have expanded to include the development and evaluation of national cancer control programs and interventions to improve the care for cancer patients .
This study provided the mortality and incidence of eye cancer based on the data from Shandong Cancer Registries. The age-standardized mortality and incidence rates with the world standard population were 2.58/107 and 12.44/107, respectively. The ASRIW in males and females were 12.25/107 and 12.75/107, respectively. They are lower than those in Singapore (male 18.9/107 and female 18.1/107) . Earlier studies showed that the incidence rate of eye cancer varied in different countries and regions. These rates of eye cancer in Asia were generally lower than those in the West [17, 18]. For example, the rates in Canadian residents were 8.1/106 and 6.0/106 for males and females, respectively in 1970–1982 . And the rates of eye cancer in New York State of American were 5.4/106 in males and 4.9/106 in females between 1975 and 1986 . The rates were much higher than those in Singapore (male 1.89/106 and female 1.81/106,1968–1995) and Taiwan (male 2.57/106 and female 2.33/106,1979–1996) . Unlike most other malignant tumors, there are no significant differences between male and female in the incidence and mortality of eye cancer. While in other common malignant tumors, such as lung cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer and colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, the incidence and mortality in males are much higher than that of females, or even several times that of females [1, 21, 22]. In addition, according to the incidence and mortality curves in different age groups, the incidence and mortality of eye cancer have two peaks in the youngest age group and an oldest age group, while the other common malignant tumors (such as respiratory system and digestive system cancers) have only one peak in the old age group [23, 24].
Eye cancer is a malignant tumor that can occur in all parts of the eye. Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular malignant tumor in children, accounting for 3% of all pediatric malignant tumors [25, 26]. Research showed that the median age for diagnosis of RB was 17.0 months . This is also the reason why there is a peak of eye cancer incidence and mortality in the low age group (0–10 years old) in our study. There is a significant regional difference in Rb mortality worldwide, with higher than 40% (40–70%) in Africa and Asia, and only 3–5% in the USA, Canada and Europe . Some factors, such as delayed diagnosis, poor access to eye cancer experts, ophthalmologic pathology, gene detection and socio-economic factors, are the factors leading to RB related life loss . Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignant tumor in adults, accounting for about 5% of all melanomas . UM can affect any part of the uveal tract including the ciliary body, iris and choroid . Most of the UM patients are between 50 and 70 years old. Rarely occur before adulthood . The risk factors of UM include light-coloured eyes, fair skin, melanocytoma, congenital ocular melanocytosis and BAP1- tumour predisposition syndrome . Nearly 50% of the UM patients occur metastatic tumor, which usually involves the liver, and usually die within one year .
Eye cancer not only seriously affects patient’s quality of life, but also directly threatens their lives . Early detection and treatment strategies are considered to be the best countermeasures to prevent and treat eye cancer, which may improve the cure rate of eye cancer, reduce public health expenditure, and exert the least impact on the patient's quality of life.