The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and PTSS in staff working in Corona centers. Based on the results of the present study, 70.6% of employees with scores above 24 experienced symptoms of stress and of this 49.8% of people with a score above 33 on the IES-R score have a worrying condition for developing PTSS. According to the Wong et al study (2020), the prevalence of stress symptoms among Chinese citizens in the Covid-19 Pandemic was 8.1% (24). In the study of Huang et al (2020), the prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 27.39% among the staff of Covid-19 centers in China, in the study of Li et al. (2020) in Wuhan, China 16%, and in the study of Zeng et al (2020), PTSD was reported 18% (25–27). While the prevalence of mental disorders and PTSD during the prevalence of SARS was 10–11% (27, 28) and during the prevalence of H1N1 flu, the prevalence of PTSD among students in China was only 2% (29). However, in the study of SUN et al. (2020), the prevalence of PTSD in the medical staff was reported to be 4.4%. The reason for the low percentage of the disorder can be due to a different questionnaire and a different statistical population. The PCL-C questionnaire was used and the study was performed on people from different groups of the community and the treatment staff were part of the people under study. On the other hand, the researchers in this study attributed the low prevalence to the experience of two waves of infectious disease by Chinese Mentioned in the twentieth century, so they seem to have experienced such crises, and it also seems that a study a month later the outbreak is a factor in this difference because the researchers themselves acknowledge that the prevalence of PTSS at different times In the same study it was different (15).
Perhaps one of the reasons for the high prevalence of PTSS in our study was to conduct this study on health workers working in Covid-19 centers, so that based on studies working in high-risk wards and high level of contact with patients, one of the most important reasons for the higher prevalence of PTSS and PTSD has been raised (30) and another reason can be mentioned due to the young medical and hospital staff and less work experience, so that according to studies less work experience is one of the reasons for the higher prevalence of PTSS among health care workers (31). The high prevalence of PTSD in employees can be attributed to being at the frontline of treatment and fighting the disease, the unknown of the virus and the lack of definitive treatment for it, high incidence and daily mortality, fear of infecting themselves or family members.
In this study, there was no significant relationship between any of the demographic characteristics such as age, sex, education, place of work and occupation, work experience, underlying illness in individuals or their families with the amount of stress experienced and PTSS symptoms. Although in this study, women showed more symptoms of PTSS, but these changes were not significant. In other studies, PTSD symptoms were higher in women and this could be due to the higher prevalence of risk factors such as depression and loneliness (15, 27, 30, 32, 33).
In this study, there was no significant relationship between the presence of underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and autoimmunity disorder, that put people at higher risk for mortality with PTSS symptoms, but This relationship was significant in other studies, in which the study found a significant relationship between the prevalence of symptoms and the risk of disease. The reason for this difference could be due to the fact that a smaller proportion of subjects due to younger age, have had of underlying diseases. And another reason is that the statistical population is different so that their statistical population was different groups of society (15, 34, 35). Although our study did not find a significant relationship between work experience and stress symptoms, other studies showed an association between work experience and perceived stress, so that studies with people with a history of more than 10 years showed more symptoms of stress. According to the researchers, this was due to the use of more experienced personnel in the pediatric ward of that hospital (27).
The average spiritual intelligence of the subjects was 124.90 and the subjects had high spiritual intelligence. There was no significant relationship between spiritual intelligence score and any of the demographic variables. In the study of Davarpanah et al (2020), Nurses working in Covid-19 ward had high spiritual intelligence and was reported as average based on Cut Off scores (36).
In other studies on nurses in Iran using the King Spiritual Intelligence Questionnaire, the spiritual intelligence score of 53(37) 61.148 (22) 48.57 (38) and based on Cut Off scores was reported as average. In Beiranvand study, more than 61% reported good spiritual intelligence score (22). This score was also reported to be moderate among nurses in Malaysia (39), but the spiritual intelligence score of 82% of nurses in China was reported to be low (40). It can be due to cultural and religious differences or different measuring instruments, and may be due to the high score in our study of different instruments or measurements at different times, so that this study was done in a pandemic situation so that based on Findings of studies of people with higher spiritual beliefs during illness or the last stages of life they had (41–43).
In a study by Ramezanli et al. In patients with cancer, the average spiritual intelligence based on King spiritual intelligence tool was 97.22 and 44.5% of people had high spiritual intelligence (43). In the evaluation of spiritual intelligence in emergency response volunteers, high spiritual intelligence scores were reported (44) and Covid- 19, due to the prevalence and unknowingness of the disease and high mortality, may have increased the sense of spirituality in individuals. According to the study, there was a negative relationship between spiritual intelligence and PTSS, meaning that those with higher spiritual intelligence experienced less stress. Also in the components of post-traumatic stress syndrome including avoidance, Intrusion and Hyper arousal and there was a relationship with spiritual intelligence and higher spiritual intelligence had a higher score in each of these components. The results of this study with other studies that express Religious beliefs and spiritual support reduce depression (45), increase quality of life and feel good (41).
According to the findings, PTSS is high in health care workers working in covid-19 wards and hospitals and also by increasing spiritual intelligence; the prevalence of PTSS can be reduced or brought to the desired state. As a result, by performing interventions in the field of spiritual intelligence, it is possible to control PTSS in Hospitals personnel. It is suggested that multicenter and follow-up studies be performed to follow the mental state of the personnel involved in the Covid-19 centers and interventions to reduce this psychological stress and PTSS symptoms in the future.