This research aimed to assess the relationship between food consumption, biochemical markers, and anthropometric values in women with MetS. There was a significant relationship between the consumption of monounsaturated fat and fast glycaemia, and an inverse relationship between fiber consumption, body mass and waist circumference.
Recent studies emphasize the impact of macronutrient intake on the energetic biomarkers related to metabolic health; genetic effects are more powerful when healthy diets are consumed (31). The interactions gene/macronutrient modulates the risk of obesity and metabolic diseases (32). In the present study, high ingestion of fats and low ingesting of fibers was noted. There was a direct relationship between monounsaturated fat intake and high fast glycaemia. Monounsaturated fat intake was from a high amount of red meat and dairy products; distinct cardiometabolic effects are related to intake of mono or polyunsaturated fats (33). Jiao et al. (34) found a positive association between monounsaturated fat and mortality.
Consumption of red meat, especially processed meat, was related to an increase in diabetes. In contrast, the intake of milk, cheese, and yogurt showed a neutral effect over cardiometabolic effects. Vegetables that provide monounsaturated fat had positive cardiometabolic effects (33, 35, 36). The 24-h dietary recalls confirmed the choice of unhealthy sources of monounsaturated fat such as processed meats and cheese, which have a high amount of saturated fat that have postprandial effects, promote the store of fat (lipogenesis), increase inflammatory processes and glycaemia (37, 38).
Another important factor for metabolic homeostasis is the intestinal microbiota which is dependent on alimentary residues, as fiber, for its surveillance and metabolism (39). Moreover, the intestinal microbiota gives high rates of butryogenesis, exercising epigenetics and immunomodulators effects on other organs of the body (40). This information could help understand the relationship between high ingest of fiber and the reduction in many pathologies, including metabolic diseases (41–45). It is important to highlight the low fiber intake found in the present study (13 g/day), which was 50% less than the recommended 26 g/day (30).
The analysis of dietary intake and anthropometrics measurements revealed an inverse relationship between the fiber intake and waist circumference. This result agrees with other studies. Liu et al. (46) evaluated 74.091 nurses over 12 years and observed that the nurses with high fiber intake gain less weight than their counterparts. Furthermore, overweight and obese women have lower intake of fruits and vegetables (47). Dietary fiber intake is inversely related to body mass, BMI and WC (48–50). The consumption of fiber is a critical to promote weight loss in subjects with obesity or overweight (49, 50). The most prevalent MetS factor in the present study was high WC (98% > 88 cm). Fibers prevent obesity by supporting the intestinal microbiota, decreasing the absorption of nutrients (51), inhibiting appetite (52, 53), and regulating homeostasis (54, 55).
This study demonstrates that small changes in eating habits, as the decrease in monounsaturated fat intake and an increase in fiber intake, could reduce the risk factors for women with MetS. Once the monounsaturated fat has a relationship with glycaemia, fibers have an inverse relationship with body mass and WC. The data found in the study enhance the importance of dietary fiber intake since it could promote beneficial effects on the anthropometric profile.
The present study has some limitations such as the small sample size, only one dietary intake assessment, and lack of data on physical activity levels. The 24-h dietary recall is subject to errors in the representation of actual dietary intake. However, there is no gold standard method available for researchers to evaluate dietary intake (56, 57). Even applied only once, this recall search estimates the absolute intake instead of relative through its open structure (58).