This paper is devoted to the scientific exploration of the pharmacological effect of the kuchala (Arum korolkowii Regel) tuber which has long been used in Asia folk medicine, on male potency. The Kyrgyz people have used the tubers of this medicinal plant for a long time, adding to the process the preparation of the national drink, kumys (fermented milk product of mare's milk), as a means of increasing the strength and endurance of male warriors [9, 10]. Folk healers, referring to the works of Avicenna, indicate that the kuchala tubers in conjunction with wine, stimulates sexual desire and detoxifies the kidneys. However, the recipe of the kuchala tuber tincture in the kumys and in the wine has not been written in detail, and modern folk healers also keep it in secret. Based on the above, we prepared a 10% tincture of kuchala tubers in 70% ethyl alcohol.
The next important stage of research planning was the choice of the type of laboratory animal for experimental study. To determine this, we analyzed the literature and found that among the different laboratory animals, the guinea pig has many morphofunctional similarities with humans, in terms of the lung physiology , and hormonal, immunological and corticosteroid responses [11, 12]. Importantly, the guinea pig has many common features with humans in terms of reproduction related to the accessory glands [14, 15], the characteristics of the placenta , and morphological and functional analysis of spermatogenesis . In addition, information exits that the testosterone and androstenedione content in serum and testes were different in guinea pigs in the prenatal [18, 23], and postnatal  periods. The concentration of testosterone in plasma reaches its maximum level at 60 days of age in guinea pigs, and then decreases with the increase in age. In the 24–35 month old guinea pigs, there is a 65% decreased in the concentration of testosterone in blood plasma . For centuries, Kyrgyz people have used the kumys tinctures of the kuchala tuber to treat disorders in terms of sexual libido of men over 70 years of age and to strengthen the bone system. In this regard in particular, the adult male guinea pigs were selected at ± 48-months of age, when their testosterone level was low. Additionally, in guinea pigs the structure of the testicles , epididymis  and spermatogenesis  have been studied in detail. The above-mentioned data served as a justification for the use of guinea pigs in this experimental study.
For the comparative analysis, we studied the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of guinea pigs. Based on the hematological and serum biochemical data of an inbred strain, 13/N guinea pigs were divided into the following age groups - juveniles (0-150 days), adults (151–900 days) and geriatric adults (older than 900 days) . Our selection for the experimental study was 48-month-old guinea pigs. Although from a different breed, they fully met our goal in terms of the choice of adult animals.
In terms of the comparative aspect of our study, we studied sixteen hematological (Table 1) and four serum biochemistry parameters (Table 2) of the blood. Based on our data, we can say with confidence that the goal of this experimental work has been achieved. This is so because the concentration of testosterone in the blood plasma in the experimental animals (21.73 ± 2.11 d) was more than twice that of the control animals (9.533 ± 0.184), which is confirmed statistically (dP < 0.001). In addition, it is confirmed that microstructural changes in the testes showed improvement in terms of spermatogenesis, i.e. increase of spermatogenesis cells in the seminiferous tubules.
However, some hematological parameters such as the lymphocytes, RBC, Hgb, Hct MCH, MCHC, color indicator and mean platelet volume significantly increased in the experimental guinea pigs (dР < 0.001; dР < 0.001; cР < 0.01; dР < 0.001; dР < 0.001; dР < 0.001, bР < 0.05, dР < 0.001 respectively), compared with the control animals. On the other hand, the neutrophils percentage in the experimental animals was significantly lower (dР < 0.001) than in the control animals. Such suspicious data indicates the toxic effect of the tincture on guinea pigs. This is probably due to the dose (0.15 µl) or the high concentration of the tuber tincture (10%), possibly with the higher diluted solution of ethanol (70%), or the long time (30 consecutive days) over which the tincture was given to the experimental guinea pigs. Hepatocellular injures can be evaluated using serum biochemistry parameters of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alkaline aminotransferanse (ALT) . The toxic effect of this tincture on the guinea pigs was also confirmed with regards to a decrease in the concentration of ALT and AST in the plasma biochemistry of the experimental guinea pigs, which was statistically significant (dP < 0.001). Such a process is observed in cirrhosis or necrosis of the liver. The toxic effects of any drug or toxic substance in the organism are expressed by damage to the structure of the liver [29, 30]. The gross anatomy parameters of the liver of both animal groups were similar, which is consistent with the data of other researchers of the liver of guinea pigs . However, microscopic examination revealed some differences in the liver in the experimental animals. The liver sections of the experimental animals were pale-stained, and all the microstructural components of the liver - cords, sinusoids, Kupffer cells  - were clearly visible. There were several apoptotic figures and apoptosomes in the liver parenchyma. As is known, pale staining of cell structures indicates low functional activity on the part of the organ.