Actively promoting circular economy (CE) is one of the key means of global sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to analyze the causal relationship between CE and economic growth using data from EU-25 countries from 2010 to 2018. The selected CE indicators included municipal waste recycling rate, CE-related investment, municipal waste generation per capita, circularity rate, and trade in recyclable raw materials. Panel cointegration techniques affirmed the long-term equilibrium relationship between CE indicators and GDP. Panel vector error correction model results confirmed that in terms of short-run causality, an increase in material recycling led to a decrease in waste generation, an increase in waste generation led to an increase in CE-related investment, and economic growth led to circular economy growth, but not vice versa. This implies that encouraging CE-related innovation investments and promoting material recycling to stimulate the secondary raw material market can help achieve zero waste goals. Looking at the long-term causality, the GDP and CE indicators constituted a causal loop, which implies that there is co-evolution between them, although the circular economy is still in its infancy. This co-evolutionary sustainable economic growth can bring welfare to future generations.