Conservation Agriculture (CA) practices getting space world-wide to answer many emerging challenges like; declining factor productivity, deteriorating soil health, water scarcity, climate change, and farm profitability and sustainability. Oilseed brassica (Indian mustard, Brassica juncea L.), a winter oilseed grown under rainfed agro-ecosystem vulnerable to low yields, high production cost, degrading soil and water quality, and climatic vagaries. The present study was undertaken on CA-based sustainable intensification of Indian mustard for enhancing inputs efficiencies, farm profitability and sustainability. Permanent beds with residue retention (PB+R) improved mustard equivalent yield (11.4%) and system grain yield (10.6%) compared to conventional tillage without residue (CT-R). Maize-mustard (Mz-M) increased system grain yield (142.9%) as well as mustard equivalent yield (60.7%) compared to fallow-mustard (F-M). Mz-M system under PB+R increased sustainable yield index (376.5%), production efficiency (177.2%), economic efficiency (94%) and irrigation water productivity (66%) compared to F-M under CT-R. PB+R increased soil organic carbon (SOC) stock at 0-15 cm (17.7%) and 15-30 cm (29.5%) soil depth compared to CT-R. Intensification of F-M system with green gram–mustard (GG-M) improved SOC at 0-15 cm (27.4%) and 15-30 cm (20.5%) compared to F-M. CA-based cluster bean-mustard/GG-M system increased N productivity, whereas, P and K productivity improved with Mz-M system compared to F-M under CT-R. Thus, CA-based Mz-M system should be out-scaled in the traditional rainfed fallow-mustard system to improve the farm production and income on holistic basis to make the country self-sufficient in edible oils.