AIDS is a highly harmful infectious disease, caused by infection with HIV that can attack the human immune system. This virus takes the most important CD4 + T lymphocytes in the human immune system as the main target, destroying the cells and losing the human immune function. The infected persons are easy to accompany a variety of diseases, and the case fatality rate is higher. Over the past 30 years, HIV has put a huge burden on global wealth and health. The WHO estimates that of the year 2020, 37.7 million people were infected with HIV worldwide. More than 6 million HIV infections worldwide are on treatment with over 150 antiretroviral drugs. The survival of HIV individuals treated with ART improved that ART can reduce viral load and delaye disease progression. However, HIV-associated HAND, CVD, MS, and non-HIV-associated malignancies remain the main complications of HIV infection, which can seriously reduce the quality of life of patients with AIDS. Hematological change is a common complication in individuals infected with HIV/AIDS.
Anaemia can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, dizziness and drowsiness.Anemia and thrombocytopenia are the most common multifactorial hematologic abnormalities in HIV/AIDS, associated with low quality of life and high mortality. Anemia occurs in 20%-80% of people infected with HIV and is one of the important causes of health loss. The prevalence of anemia is clearly associated with the disease progression of HIV/AIDS. During the treatment of HIV/AIDS patients, drug influences, viral infection and malignant cell infection will affect the blood health system of the patient, and it is very likely to induce anemia. However, the related factors affecting the blood system and causing anemia are complex and diverse, which lead to a very difficult treatment of anemia for AIDS patients[10, 11].
The diagnostic criteria for anemia of the WHO are less than 110g/L in women and less than 120g/L in men. Anemia was divided into four grades: mild anemia, moderate anemia, severe anemia and extremely severe anemia according to different hemoglobin levels. Many risk factors are associated with anemia in AIDS patients. For example, older age, lower CD4 counts, and ethnic minorities were associated with an increased risk of anemia; Anemia in AIDS patients was also highly associated with no ART, a history of anti-tuberculosis medication, an ART regimen containing zidovudine (ZDV), and a CD4 + T lymphocyte count ≤ 200 cell/L. Additionally, ART also seems to accelerate anemia in some cases. The pathogenesis of anemia in AIDS/HIV patients was related with many etiological factors. However, limited information were found for the correlated causes immune factors.
Studies have proved that anemia is related to the immune state of the body. HIV mainly destroys the immune system of infected people and causes the disorder of the immune system. The immune system mediates many diseases of the blood system. The three aspects interact with each other and the relationship is complex. It leads to accelerated disease progression and decreased quality of life. Paying attention to the changes of immune factors in HIV infected patients with anemia can promote the good prognosis of the disease.