Internet access is currently considered a must have in daily routines and therefore has been installed in almost all communication gadgets (Zhi et al., 2018 , Nazıroğlu et al., 2013) . Consequently, continuous exposure to Wi-Fi has become a very common risk factor for poor health (Foster and Moulder, 2015 , At-Assa et al., 2013 , Aït-Aïssa et al., 2012).
The present study investigated the effects of a 2.54 GHz WIFI signal exposure during prenatal and early life (24 h/day for 9 consecutive weeks) on rat neurodevelopment, behaviors and cognition as well as biochemical indexes alterations.
Our study found that WiFi exposure did not affect offspring physical and functional development. These results agree with a study by Poulletier et al. , 2012. Behaviorally, exposed offspring exhibited no alteration in motor and emotional behavior. Contrarily, some studies have revealed that exposure to WiFi radio frequencies during pregnancy could affect neurological functions of offspring (Othman et al., 2017b , Othman et al., 2017a) . However, this could have been due to the high radiation dosage tested in these studies. Herein, we revealed that in most tests, the effect of WiFi treatment was dependent on the sex of the offspring, and this was consistent with the findings of Zhang et al; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear.
EMF exposure has been shown to have contradictory effects on the cognitive functions of animals including humans. Dubreuil et al. revealed that RF expose can reduce performance in rodents, particularly in tasks that require spatial memory (Dubreuil et al., 2003) . Contrarily, Kumin et al. demonstrated that exposure to a signal of 900 MHz frequency for five weeks (i.e., 2 hours a day, five days per week, SAR 3 W/kg) can significantly improve memory and learning abilities of young rats (Kumlin et al., 2007). Herein, we observed that prenatal WiFi exposure can enhance cognitive ability. Several studies have shown that protein synthesis occurs in neuronal dendrites and might be the cellular basis of memory and learning. Currently, it’s not known whether microwave radiation affects protein synthesis, particularly in the brain. In this study, we found that prenatal WiFi exposure can increase the expression of BDNF and phosphorylated CREB proteins. However, the detailed mechanism still needs to study further.
The brain has been shown to be more prone to oxidative injury during development in early years of life (Ö et al., 2016). Besides, oxidative stress can be activated via several mechanisms, such as electromagnetic radiation, thus resulting in molecular impairment. The oxidative stress response due to exposure to WiFi signals has been previously investigated in an animal model. It is noteworthy that previous studies that investigated the harmful effects of RF-EMR have reported inconsistent findings. Ozben T 2007 and Kasra Kamali1 2018 implicated microwave radiation (Shokri et al., 2015 , Foster and Moulder, 2015 , At-Assa et al., 2013 , Aït-Aïssa et al., 2012) in apoptosis through their ability to trigger lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and as a result yield apoptosis signal (Kamali et al., 2018 , Ozben, 2010 , Dasdag et al., 2008). However, other studies have indicated that EMR has no considerable impact on the antioxidant defense system because of unaltered oxidative stress markers such as MDA (At-Assa et al., 2013). In the present study, WiFi exposure didn’t induce brain oxidative stress response in offspring, suggesting that the possible damaging impacts of such radiations could be dependent on the exposure duration, dose, age, and body posture (Peter and Richard, 2010). Contradictory results of the mentioned research could be because of differences in study methods, especially in the duration of exposure and dose of WiFi signal.
In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that prenatal WiFi exposure does not affect the offspring’s hippocampal neurons, oxidative equilibrium in brain and neurodevelopment and emotional responses. Notably, some effects of WiFi exposure are sex-dependent. Prenatal WiFi exposure increased the body weight, improved the spatial memory and learning function and induced behavioral hyperactivity of male rats.However, there is a need to conduct further studies, especially on biochemical and neuro molecular mechanisms underlying such effects.