With the continuing urbanization, much public attention has been placed on the pollutant emission of building materials. In this paper, experimental analysis of different emission rate impact factors (including temperature, relative humidity, ventilation, and seasonality) was performed to investigate the characteristic of formaldehyde and TVOC emissions from dry and wet building materials. The experiment was conducted in an environmental chamber, and the effects of the impact factors were analyzed using one-factor-at-a-time control method. The results showed that the VOC emission trends of dry and wet building materials are basically the same over time, so are the emission trend under different air exchange rates. Increased air exchange rate can promote the emission rate, for which the effect of air exchange rate is higher for the TVOC emission rate than for the formaldehyde emission rate. On the other hand, temperature and relative humidity showed significantly higher impacts for the emission rate of formaldehyde than the air exchange rate, and synergy between high temperature and high humidity could increase the emission rate of TVOC. Furthermore, it was found that the formaldehyde emission in the summer is much higher than that in the winter and transition season. In general, results of this research could provide invaluable data support and guidance for TVOC emission control, indoor air pollutants management, and control strategy optimization.