Institutional review board approval (Israel: RMC-0498-18; USA: 21-001492, Germany: EA1/182/10) with waiver of patient consent in anonymous retrospective deindentified data collection for Israel and USA, and with written consent for Germany (available upon request).
Consent to Participate
Data are available upon reasonable request.
No funding was procured for this work.
Conflict of Interest
None. No conflict of interest relevant to this study
HSK, SA, AT, KB, AWY, OB, IL, MAH and JJC collected anonymized patient data, HSK, SA, KR, EPF, SJP and JJC analyzed the data, KR: statistical analysis, table and figures, KB -figures, HSK, SA, JJC, AT, KB, AWY, OB, IL, TSH, EPF, SJP, MTB, MAH, KR and FP drafted the manuscript All authors participated in interpretation of data and manuscript revisions.
Hadas Stiebel-Kalish: Received speakers honoraria from Roche unrelated to this project.
Kerstin Rubarth: None.
Karni Blum: None.
Alon Tiosano: None.
Itay Lotan: None.
Mark A. Hellmann: None.
Adi Wilf-Yarkoni: None.
Omer Bialer: None.
Tariq Bhatt: None.
Sean Pittock: Dr. Pittock has a patent # 8 889 102 (Application#12-678350) -Neuromyelitis Optica Autoantibodies as a Marker for Neoplasia issued, and a patent # 9 891 219B2 (Application#12-573942) Methods for Treating Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) by Administration of Eculizumab to an individual that is Aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG Autoantibody positive issued. He has a patent pending for GFAP, Septin 5, MAP1B, KLHL11, PDE10A IgGs as markers of neurological autoimmunity and paraneoplastic disorders. He has consulted for Alexion, Euroimmune, Medimmune/Horizon, Astellas, Genentech/Roche, Sage Therapeutics, Prime Therapeutics. He has received research support from Grifols, Medimmune/Horizon, Genentech/Roche and Alexion. He has received research support from NIH, Guthy Jackson Charitable Foundation, Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance.
Eoin P. Flanagan: Dr Flanagan has served on advisory boards for Alexion, Genentech and Horizon Therapeutics. He has received speaker honoraria from Pharmacy Times. He received royalties from UpToDate. Dr Flanagan was a site primary investigator in a randomized clinical trial on Inebilizumab in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder run by Medimmune/Viela-Bio/Horizon Therapeutics. Dr Flanagan has received funding from the NIH (R01NS113828). Dr Flanagan is a member of the medical advisory board of the MOG project. Dr Flanagan is an editorial board member of the Journal of the Neurological Sciences and Neuroimmunology Reports. A patent has been submitted on DACH1-IgG as a biomarker of paraneoplastic autoimmunity.
Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch received speakers honoraria Bayer and Biogen.
F. Paul serves as Academic Editor, PLoS ONE, and Associate Editor, Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation; is member of Novartis OCTIMS study steering committee and MedImmune/Viela Bio steering committee; reports speaker honoraria and travel grants from Bayer, Novartis, Biogen Idec, Teva, Sanofi-Aventis/Genzyme, Merck Serono, Alexion, Chugai, MedImmune, Shire, Roche, Actelion, and Celgene and consultancies for Sanofi Genzyme, Biogen Idec, MedImmune, Shire, and Alexion; and received research support from Bayer, Novartis, Biogen Idec, Teva, Sanofi-Aventis/Genzyme, Alexion, and Merck Serono, German Research Council (DFG Exc 257), Werth Stiftung of the City of Cologne, German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF Competence Network Multiple Sclerosis), EU FP7 Framework Program (combims.eu), Arthur Arnstein Foundation Berlin, The Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation, and National Multiple Sclerosis Society of the United States.
Susanna Asseyer: Honoraria for lecturing from Alexion, Bayer, and Roche unrelated to this project.
John J. Chen: Consultant to Roche and UCB.
1Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
2Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Petach Tikva, Israel
3Division of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Rabin Medical Center – Beilinson Hospital, Petach Tikva, Israel;
4Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institute of Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology, Berlin, Germany
5Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin, Germany
6Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institute of Medical Informatics, Berlin, Germany
7Department of Neurology, Rabin Medical Center – Beilinson Hospital, Petach Tikva, Israel
8Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
9Department of Neurology, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Center for MS and Autoimmune Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
10Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany
11Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA