The demand for low power, large-scale integration, and novel functionality has been increasing since the emergence of the internet of things (IoT) and Edge Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications requiring real-time energy-efficient information processing. In this work, the integration of doped high-k ferroelectric and linear high-k dielectric gate stacks with 2D material systems is developed as a versatile technological solution for building robust energy-efficient electronic functions. In this context, we report the co-integration of three major types of devices, offering the first 2D hybrid platform supporting the co-design of energy-efficient Von-Neumann and neuromorphic circuits. The negative capacitance (NC) of the ferroelectric layer is used in our platform as a technology booster to achieve significantly improved subthermionic electronic switches. The performance of four types of logic switches on this platform: 2D MOSFET, 2D/2D TFET, NC 2D MOSFET, and NC 2D/2D TFET, are reported, showing superior performance of NC devices compared to their conventional baseline 2D MOSFET and 2D/2D TFET. Importantly, this work shows the first NC 2D/2D TFET integrated with NC 2D MOSFET that achieves an average swing of 50 mV/dec over 2.5 decades of current for TFET and 45 mV/dec over 3 decades of ID for MOSFET. Furthermore, we exploit the same ferroelectric gate stacks on 2D devices to build artificial synapses and our platform demonstrates a good capability to mimic various synapse behaviors including long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and spike-amplitude-dependent plasticity. This prototypical demonstration paves the way toward practical implementations of 2D platforms in emerging Edge AI technologies, enabling energy-efficient operation, high integration density, and excellent scalability while co-integrating for the first time logic switches and neuromorphic devices.