The porcine gut is increasingly regarded as a useful translational model. The enteric nerve system (ENS) in the colon coordinates diverse functions. However, knowledge of the molecular profiling of porcine ENS and its similarity to that of human is limited. We identified the distinct transcriptional programs associated with functional characteristics between inner submucosal and myenteric ganglia (ISG, MG) in porcine proximal and distal colon (p-pC, p-dC) using bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and single-cell RNA-seq. Comparative transcriptomics of MG in corresponding colonic regions of porcine and human revealed highly conserved programs existing in p-pC and p-dC, which explained >90% of their transcriptomic responses to vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), suggesting that p-pC and p-dC could serve as predictors in translational studies. The conserved programs specific for inflammatory modulation were displayed in porcine with VNS. This study provides a valuable transcriptomic resource for understanding of human colonic functions and neuromodulation using porcine model.